Browsing Food Chemistry & Technology by Subject "Firmness"
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The effect of buttermilk or buttermilk powder addition on functionality, textural, sensory and volatile characteristics of Cheddar-style cheeseThe influence of buttermilk or buttermilk powder addition to cheese milk or cheese curds respectively on cheese functional properties, free fatty acid profiles and subsequent volatile and sensory characteristics was investigated. Buttermilk addition to cheese milk resulted in a softer cheese compared to other cheeses, with a significantly reduced flowability, while buttermilk powder addition had no influence on cheese firmness but cheese flowability was also reduced compared to the control cheese. Larger pools of free fat, higher levels of free fatty acids, volatile compounds and significant differences in sensory profiles associated with off-flavour were also observed with the addition of buttermilk to cheese milk. Application of light microscopy, using toluidine blue stain, facilitated the visualisation of fat globule structure and distribution within the protein matrix. Addition of 10% buttermilk powder resulted in significant increases in volatile compounds originating from proteolysis pathways associated with roasted, green aromas. Descriptive sensory evaluation indicated few differences between the 10% buttermilk powder and the control cheese, while buttermilk cheeses scored negatively for sweaty, barnyard aromas, oxidized and off flavors, correlating with associated volatile aromas. Addition of 10% buttermilk powder to cheese curds results in cheese comparable to the control Cheddar with some variations in volatile compounds resulting in a cheese with similar structural and sensory characteristics albeit with subtle differences in overall cheese flavor. This could be manipulated to produce cheeses of desirable quality, with potential health benefits due to increased phospholipid levels in cheese.