• Effects of transglutaminase pre-crosslinking on salt-induced gelation of soy protein isolate emulsion

      Luo, Kaiyun; Liu, Shutao; Miao, Song; Adhikari, Benu; Wang, Xufeng; Chen, Jie; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China; National Natural Science Foundation of China; NSFC, 31271946; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-07-09)
      The salt-induced gelation behavior of soy protein isolate (SPI) emulsions was markedly influenced by microbial transglutaminase (TGase) pre-crosslinking. Rheological data showed that when SPI emulsions were incubated with TGase at low concentrations (1 and 3 U/g protein) at 50 °C for 30 min prior to gelation, no change in storage modulus (G′), but enhanced resistance to deformation of the gels was observed. Extensive crosslinking by TGase (5 U/g protein) resulted in severe decreases in gel firmness and fracture properties (yielding stress and strain), likely due to the impairment of hydrophobic bonds and the formation of coarse networks. The water-holding capacity of the gels was significantly enhanced by increased concentrations of TGase. Interactive force analysis indicated that non-covalent interactions and disulfide bonds are the primary forces involved in CaSO4-induced SPI emulsion gel, but TGase treatment may limit hydrophobic interactions within the gel network. These results are of great potential value for the application of TGase in the food industry.
    • In vitro digestion of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks with pea protein isolate, rice protein and lentil flour following sous vide processing

      Baugreet, Sephora; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hamill, Ruth M; Brodkorb, Andre; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2019-04-12)
      The effect of plant protein inclusion in cooked meat upon in vitro gastro-intestinal (GI) digestion was investigated. Pea protein isolate, rice protein and lentil flour were used to increase the protein content in a meat model system restructured using two transglutaminase enzymes [Activa®EB (TG) and Transgluseen™-M (TS)]. Restructured beef steaks were subjected to simulated GI digestion using the static INFOGEST method. Samples taken at different digestion times were analysed using SDS-PAGE, size exclusion-HPLC, free amino acid analysis and microscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed significant protein hydrolysis during GI digestion. Most soluble peptides had a molecular weight smaller than 500 Da, corresponding to peptides of <5 amino acids, regardless of food treatment. The amounts of released, free amino acids isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine and valine were higher (P < 0.05) in lentil-enriched restructured beef steaks following GI digestion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) revealed pronounced aggregation in digested samples. In vitro digestates of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks showed lower production of small molecular weight peptides. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks are influenced by formulation and processing.