• Acrylamide formation in potato products

      Brunton, Nigel; Gormley, Ronan T.; Butler, Francis; Cummins, Enda; Danaher, Martin; O'Keeffe, Michael (Teagasc, 2006-08)
      Acrylamide, a substance classified as a potential carcinogen, occurs in heated starchy foods at concentrations many times in excess of levels permitted in drinking water. Early surveys indicated that levels of acrylamide in potato products such as French fries and potato crisps were the highest of the foodstuffs investigated. The present project addressed this issue by determining levels of acrylamide precursors (asparagine and reducing sugars) in raw potatoes and levels of acrylamide in (i) potato products from different storage regimes, (ii) spot-sampled potatoes purchased from a local supermarket, (iii) samples that received pre-treatments and were fried at different temperatures and (iv) French fries reheated in different ovens.A risk assessment of the estimated acrylamide intake from potato products for various cohorts of the Irish population was also conducted.
    • Adding value to Beef Forequarter Muscles

      Kenny, Tony; Lennon, Ann; Ward, Patrick; Sullivan, Paul; McDonald, Karl; O'Neill, Eileen; Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 01/11/2008)
      The forequarter constitutes 50% of the weight of a beef carcase but only about 25% of its value.To fulfill the objectives of this project, the work was organised into 4 parts as follows: 1.Characterisation of the available raw material, in terms of properties of individual muscles seamed out from carcasses of representative types of animals produced in Ireland. 2.Comparison of yields and operator time for seaming and conventional boning. 3.Utilisation of separated muscles in added-value products using appropriate tenderising, bonding and forming technology. 4.Transfer of the knowledge and technology to the industry.
    • Adding value to beef forequarter muscles

      Kenny, Tony; Lennon, Ann; Ward, Patrick; Sullivan, Paul; McDonald, Karl; Downey, Gerard; O'Neill, Eileen (Teagasc, 2008-11)
      The forequarter constitutes 50% of the weight of a beef carcase but only about 25% of its value. To fulfill the objectives of this project, the work was organised into 4 parts as follows: 1.Characterisation of the available raw material, in terms of properties of individual muscles seamed out from carcasses of representative types of animals produced in Ireland. 2.Comparison of yields and operator time for seaming and conventional boning. 3.Utilisation of separated muscles in added-value products using appropriate tenderising, bonding and forming technology. 4.Transfer of the knowledge and technology to the industry.
    • Adding value to cull cow beef

      O'Donovan, Michael; Minchin, William; Buckley, Frank; Kenny, David A.; Shalloo, Laurence (Teagasc, 01/08/2009)
      This project addressed the prospects of increasing the value of cull cow beef and examined the potential of a number of different management and dietary strategies. In Ireland, the national cow herd contributes 350,000 animals to total beef production annually, which represents 22% of all cattle slaughtered (DAF, 2007). A dominant feature of beef production in Ireland is the disposal of cows from the dairy and beef industries, the time of year at which culling occurs influences the number of cows available for slaughter. Suitability of a cow for slaughter is generally not a consideration for dairy or beef farmers.
    • Adding Value To Under utilised Fish Species

      Fagan, John; Gormley, Ronan T.; Mitchell, Michelle; Downey, Gerard; National Development Plan (NDP) (Teagasc, 01/02/2006)
      Tightening fish quotas and supply shortages for conventional species are causing major difficulties for both fishermen and seafood processors. There is a need, therefore, to explore the potential of underutilised fish species both as fillets or portions and as added-value products. The current project at Ashtown Food Research Centre (AFRC) addressed this issue for a number of underutilised species via (a) sous vide processing (with savoury sauces),(b)marinating (salt- and sugar-based marinades) and (c) via a combination of freeze-chilling and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).A range of physico-chemical and sensory tests was conducted on the products and their shelf-life status was also determined.
    • Adding value to under-utilised fish species

      Fagan, John; Gormley, Ronan T.; Mitchell, Michelle; Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 2006-02)
      Tightening fish quotas and supply shortages for conventional species are causing major difficulties for both fishermen and seafood processors. There is a need, therefore, to explore the potential of underutilised fish species both as fillets or portions and as added-value products. The current project at Ashtown Food Research Centre (AFRC) addressed this issue for a number of underutilised species via (a) sous vide processing (with savoury sauces),(b)marinating (salt- and sugar-based marinades) and (c) via a combination of freeze-chilling and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).A range of physico-chemical and sensory tests was conducted on the products and their shelf-life status was also determined.
    • Alternative uses for co-products: Harnessing the potential of valuable compounds from meat processing chains

      Mullen, Anne Maria; Álvarez García, Carlos; Zeugolis, Dimitrios; Henchion, Maeve; O'Neill, Eileen; Drummond, Liana; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 11/F/043 (Elsevier, 03/05/2017)
      Opportunities for exploiting the inherent value of protein-rich meat processing co-products, in the context of increased global demand for protein and for sustainable processing systems, are discussed. While direct consumption maybe the most profitable route for some, this approach is influenced greatly by local and cultural traditions. A more profitable and sustainable approach may be found in recognizing this readily available and under-utilised resource can provide high value components, such as proteins, with targeted high value functionality of relevance to a variety of sectors. Applications in food & beverages, petfood biomedical and nutrition arenas are discussed. Utilization of the raw material in its entirety is a necessary underlying principle in this approach to help maintain minimum waste generation. Understanding consumer attitudes to these products, in particular when used in food or beverage systems, is critical in optimizing commercialization strategies.
    • Application of broadband acoustic resonance dissolution spectroscopy (BARDS) to the gas release behaviour during rehydration of milk protein isolate agglomerates

      Wu, Shaozong; Fitzpatrick, John; Cronin, Kevin; Ahmed, M. Rizwan; Fitzpatrick, Dara; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; Teagasc; 201606350091; MDDT0153 (Elsevier, 2019-02-13)
      The BARDS technique was applied in this study to acoustically assess the rehydration behaviour of milk protein isolate (MPI) agglomerates and to compare with regular MPI powder. The results showed that BARDS has potential to monitor the rehydration behaviour of agglomerates. The greater porosity (>70%) of agglomerated powders introduced more compressible gas into the water. The BARDS profile showed that there was faster initial gas release from the agglomerates, indicating better wetting and dispersion ability of the agglomerates with shorter tM (time of maximum gas volume in solution). At 0.10% powder addition, agglomerated MPI reached tM within 109 s, which was significantly less than the control MPI at 140 s. MPI with lactose binder (MPI-L) had a tM of 80 s at 0.10% powder addition and, larger size MPI-L had a tM of 60 s. At 0.20% and 0.30% powder addition, more time was required to wet and disperse the powders.
    • Application of class-modelling techniques to near infrared data for food authentication purposes

      Oliveri, P.; Di Egidio, V.; Woodcock, T.; Downey, Gerard; European Union (Elsevier, 2011)
      Following the introduction of legal identifiers of geographic origin within Europe, methods for confirming any such claims are required. Spectroscopic techniques provide a method for rapid and non-destructive data collection and a variety of chemometric approaches have been deployed for their interrogation. In this present study, class-modelling techniques (SIMCA, UNEQ and POTFUN) have been deployed after data compression by principal component analysis for the development of class-models for a set of olive oil and honey. The number of principal components, the confidence level and spectral pre-treatments (1st and 2nd derivative, standard normal variate) were varied, and a strategy for variable selection was tried. Models were evaluated on a separate validation sample set. The outcomes are reported and criteria for selection of the most appropriate models for any given application are discussed.
    • The application of process analytical technologies (PAT) to the dairy industry for real time product characterization - process viscometry

      O’Shea, Norah; O'Callaghan, Tom; Tobin, John; Dairy Processing Technology (DPTC) Centre; Enterprise Ireland; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier, 2019-05-03)
      The ideal PAT tool is an inline instrument that can monitor and measure process parameters simultaneously in real time while operating in a highly automated environment. Instruments must be of sanitary design, operate robustly within the full process cycle (production and cleaning). Inline determination of the rheological properties of moving fluids (i.e. dairy concentrates) is one of the process parameters where PAT tools can be add real value in terms of optimising process control. Measurement of process viscosity is crucial in the monitoring and control of a variety of concentration processes in the dairy industry. Continuous monitoring of the rheological behaviour of the fluid can allow for optimisation of the process e.g. pumping (avoid pump blockage and failure), evaporation (limit fouling and maximise water removal) and spray drying (avoidance of nozzle fouling). This review concentrates on the state of the art developments being made in the area of process viscometry.
    • Assessing the Carbon Emission Driven by the Consumption of Carbohydrate-Rich Foods: The Case of China

      Yang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Zhihang; Chen, Huangyixin; Zhao, Rongrong; Xu, Zhongyue; Xie, Anguo; Chen, Qiuhua; Fujian Provincial Social Science Research Base for Ecological Civilization; Guangdong Planning Projects of Philosophy and Social Science; Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province; et al. (MDPI AG, 2019-03-28)
      Background: Carbohydrate-rich (CR) foods are essential parts of the Chinese diet. However, CR foods are often given less attention than animal-based foods. The objectives of this study were to analyze the carbon emissions caused by CR foods and to generate sustainable diets with low climate impact and adequate nutrients. Methods: Twelve common CR food consumption records from 4857 individuals were analyzed using K-means clustering algorithms. Furthermore, linear programming was used to generate optimized diets. Results: Total carbon emissions by CR foods was 683.38g CO2eq per day per capita, accounting for an annual total of 341.9Mt CO2eq. All individuals were ultimately divided into eight clusters, and none of the popular clusters were low carbon or nutrient sufficient. Optimized diets could reduce about 40% of carbon emissions compared to the average current diet. However, significant structural differences exist between the current diet and optimized diets. Conclusions: To reduce carbon emissions from the food chain, CR foods should be a research focus. Current Chinese diets need a big change to achieve positive environmental and health goals. The reduction of rice and wheat-based foods and an increase of bean foods were the focus of structural dietary change in CR food consumption.
    • Bioactivity of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin-Technological implications for processing

      Chatterton, Dereck E.W.; Smithers, Geoffrey; Roupas, Peter; Brodkorb, Andre (Elsevier, 17/08/2006)
      The dairy industry faces new technological challenges in order to exploit and maintain some of the bioactive properties of dairy components throughout processing. This review outlines these issues with respect to the two major whey proteins β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-la). Biological activities of both the intact proteins, and peptides derived from the proteins, are discussed e.g. inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), anti-microbial activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, hypocholesterolemic effect, metabolic and physiological effects. The levels necessary to provide beneficial effects and, if available, evidence from clinical trials are reported. Developments in the purification and enrichment of the proteins are discussed, and the technological implications of industrial processing on the bio-activity of the proteins are examined. The supplementation of infant formulas with α-lactalbumin enriched whey proteins is also discussed in light of its potentially improved bioactive properties.
    • Biochemical and physical indicators of beef quality

      Troy, Declan J. (Teagasc, 1999-03)
      Beef of a consistent quality is required by the meat industry in order to maintain and expand markets. Measurement of beef quality is difficult at factory level. Measurements to indicate the final eating quality are not well developed yet. This project examined novel approaches to this problem using biochemical and physical methods. The Biochemical indicators of beef quality examined included: pH , Protease activity as a potential indicator of meat tenderness, Cathepsin B and cathepsin B&L activities in relation to beef ageing, Relationship between cathepsin B and cathepsin B&L activity and WBSF values, Protein fragments as an indication of beef tenderness and Myofibrillar proteins. The Physical indicators of beef quality examined included: Post-mortem changes in muscle electrical properties and their relationship to meat quality attributes, Near infrared reflectance spectra as indicators of beef quality, Shear force as an indicator of tenderness.
    • Bovine glycomacropeptide promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis and modulates its gene expression

      O'Riordan, Noelle; O'Callaghan, John; Butto, Ludovica F.; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2018-05-24)
      Bovine milk glycomacropeptide (GMP) is derived from κ-casein, with exclusively o-linked glycosylation. Glycomacropeptide promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis in a concentration-dependent manner, and this activity was lost following periodate treatment of the GMP (GMP-P), which disables biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides. Transcriptional analysis of B. longum ssp. infantis following exposure to GMP revealed a substantial response to GMP relative to bacteria treated with GMP-P, with a greater number of differentially expressed transcripts and larger fold changes versus the control. Therefore, stimulation of B. longum ssp. infantis growth by GMP is intrinsically linked to the peptide's O-linked glycosylation. The pool of differentially expressed transcripts included 2 glycoside hydrolase (family 25) genes, which were substantially upregulated following exposure to GMP, but not GMP-P. These GH25 genes were present in duplicated genomic islands that also contained genes encoding fibronectin type III binding domain proteins and numerous phage-related proteins, all of which were also upregulated. Homologs of this genomic arrangement were present in other Bifidobacterium species, which suggest it may be a conserved domain for the utilization of glycosylated peptides. This study provides insights into the molecular basis for the prebiotic effect of bovine milk GMP on B. longum ssp. infantis.
    • Characterisation and application of fruit by-products as novel ingredients in gluten-free products

      O'Shea, Norah; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (2014-01)
      Literature has revealed that “waste” left from the processing of fruit can still contain a substantial quantity of macro and minor nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to ascertain the nutritional and structural properties and potential uses of two fruit by-products [apple pomace (Malus domestica Cv. “Karmijn de Sonnaville”) and orange pomace (Citrus sinensis L. Cv. “Valencia”)] in glutenfree bread and extruded snack formulations. The physicochemical and nutritional properties of the fruit by-products were initially studied. Apple pomace contained a high level of fibre and pectin. The isolated pectin was demonstrated to have a high level of methylation which developed viscous pastes. Orange pomace also had high levels of fibre and pectin, and it was an abundant source of minerals such as potassium and magnesium. Orange pomace had a poor gelling ability. The flour obtained after milling dried orange pomace was used in the formulation of gluten-free bread with the aid of a response surface design. Due to the fibrous properties of orange pomace flour, proofing and water addition were also studied. When added at levels greater than 6%, the loaf volume decreased. The number of cells per slice also decreased with increasing orange pomace addition. Inclusion of orange pomace at levels of up to 4% increased crumb softness. An optimised formulation and proofing time was derived using the optimisation tool; these consisted of 5.5% orange pomace, 94.6% water inclusion and with 49 minutes proofing. These optimised parameters doubled the total dietary fibre content of the bread compared to the original control. The pasting properties, rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of the optimised formulation (batter and bread) were investigated. Pasting results showed how orange pomace inclusions reduced the final viscosity of the batter, hence reducing the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. Rheological properties such as the storage modulus (G') and complex modulus (G*) increased in the orange pomace batter compared to the control batter. This demonstrates how the orange pomace as an ingredient improved the robustness of the formulation. Sensory panellists scored the orange pomace bread comparably to the control bread. Milled apple pomace was studied as a potential novel ingredient in an extruded snack. As extrusion requires the trialling of a number of extruder parameters, a response surface design was again used to develop an optimised snack. The parameters studied were apple pomace addition, die head temperature and screw speed. Screw speed had the most significant impact on extrudate characteristics. As screw speed increased the favourable extrudate characteristics such as radical expansion ratio, porosity and specific volume decreased. The inclusion of apple pomace had a negative effect on extrudate characteristics at levels greater than 8% addition. Including apple pomace reduced the hardness and increased the crispiness of the snack. Using the optimisation tool, the optimised and validated formulation and extrusion process contained the following parameters: 7.7% apple pomace, 150oC die head temperature and a screw speed of 69 rpm.
    • Commercial systems for ultra-rapid chilling of lamb

      Redmond, Grainne; McGeehin, Brian; Henchion, Maeve; Sheridan, James J.; Troy, Declan J.; Cowan, Cathal; Butler, Francis (Teagasc, 2001-08)
      The overall objective was to devise a rapid chilling system for the Irish lamb processing industry. The objective of the first trial was to assess the effect of ultra-rapid chilling in air at - 4ºC, -10ºC and -20ºC and subsequent ageing on the appearance and tenderness of lamb carcasses. The objective of the next trial was to investigate the effect of carcass splitting, which produces faster chilling rates and reduces skeletal constraint of muscles, on the tenderness of rapidly and conventionally chilled lamb. The next task was to compare the effects of immersion chilling and conventional air chilling on meat tenderness and evaporative weight loss in lamb carcasses. The next task was to assess the level of interest in industry. This required costings of the process and a survey of several lamb processors focusing on their perceptions of rapid chilling in general, its advantages and disadvantages, and the implications of adopting the new system. The final objective was to introduce the ultra-rapid chilling process to industry via a factory trial. Lambs were ultra-rapidly chilled and then exported to France for assessment.
    • Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate

      Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Giuliano, Elia; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 06RDNUIG470 (PLOS, 07/03/2016)
      Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity.
    • Comparison of antioxidant activities of bovine whey proteins before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion

      Corrochano, Alberto R.; Sariçay, Yunus; Arranz, Elena; Kelly, Philip; Buckin, Vitaly; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 13 F 354-WheyGSH (Elsevier, 2018-10-24)
      Oxidative stress caused by free radicals has been implicated in several human disorders. Dietary antioxidants can help the body to counteract those reactive species and reduce oxidative stress. Antioxidant activity is one of the multiple health-promoting attributes assigned to bovine whey products. The present study investigated whether this activity was retained during upper gut transit using a static simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) model. The capacity to scavenge free radicals and reduce ferric ion of whey protein isolate (WPI), individual whey proteins, and hydrolysates pre- and post-SGID were measured and compared using various antioxidant assays. In addition, the free AA released from individual protein fractions in physiological gut conditions were characterized. Our results indicated that the antioxidant activity of WPI after exposure to the harsh conditions of the upper gut significantly increased compared with intact WPI. From an antioxidant bioactivity viewpoint, this exposure negates the need for prior hydrolysis of WPI. The whey protein α-lactalbumin showed the highest antioxidant properties post-SGID (oxygen radical absorbance capacity = 1,825.94 ± 50.21 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g of powder) of the 4 major whey proteins tested with the release of the highest amount of the antioxidant AA tryptophan, 6.955 μmol of tryptophan/g of protein. Therefore, α-lactalbumin should be the preferred whey protein in food formulations to boost antioxidant defenses.
    • A comparison of pilot-scale supersonic direct steam injection to conventional steam infusion and tubular heating systems for the heat treatment of protein-enriched skim milk-based beverages

      Kelleher, Clodagh M.; Tobin, John; O'Mahony, James A.; Kelly, Alan L.; O'Callaghan, Donal; McCarthy, Noel; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship programme; 10 RD TMFRC 703 (Elsevier, 2019-01-04)
      Direct supersonic steam injection, direct steam infusion, and indirect tubular heating were each applied to protein-enriched skim milk-based beverages with 4, 6 and 8% (w/w) total protein, and the effect of final heat temperature on the physical properties of these beverages was investigated. Supersonic steam injection resulted in significantly lower levels of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (34.5%), compared to both infusion (76.3%) and tubular (97.1%) heating technologies. Viscosity, particle size and accelerated physical stability of formulations did not differ significantly between the heating technologies, while noticeable colour differences due to heat treatment (mainly attributed to increasing b* value) were observed, particularly for tubular heating. Overall, the extent of protein denaturation in high-protein dairy products was significantly influenced by the particular heating technology applied. The application of supersonic steam injection technology, with rapid heating and high shear characteristics, may enable differenciated product characteristics for ready-to-drink ambient-delivery high-protein dairy beverages. Industrial relevance: The design and application of novel direct supersonic steam injection technology was comprehensively studied and found to provide significant benefits over direct steam infusion and indirect tubular heating technologies for skim milk-based protein beverages. This type of injection heating system resulted in heat-treated formulations with lower levels of denatured whey proteins, compared to tubular and infusion heating, offering an alternative opportunity to the industry in terms of producing shelf-stable dairy protein beverages.
    • Comparison of the nutritional composition of experimental fermented milk:wheat bulgur blends and commercially available kishk and tarhana products

      O'Callaghan, Yvonne C.; Shevade, Ashwini V.; Guinee, Timothy P.; O'Connor, Tom P.; O'Brien, Nora M.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14/F/805 (Elsevier, 2018-11-05)
      Dried, fermented blends of dairy products and cereals, such as kishk and tarhana, are foodstuffs traditionally consumed in many regions as they possess good nutritional qualities and extended storage stability. This study examined the nutritional composition of kishk or tarhana type products and compared with experimental blends of fermented milk and wheat bulgur containing 60–80% milk. The blends with higher milk contents had levels of protein (18.9%) and fat (5.8%) at the concentrations specified in fortified blended foods as outlined by the World Food Program. Higher milk contents were also associated with higher contents of calcium (323.2 mg/100 g), phosphorus (335.3 mg/100 g), vitamin A (486.7 µg/100 g) and α-tocopherol (174.5 µg/100 g). The nutritional content of the experimental fermented milk:wheat bulgur blends compared favourably with that of the commercial samples. These blends may be suitable as base products, to be fortified with micronutrients, for the development of fortified blended foods (FBFs) for humanitarian distribution.