Now showing items 21-40 of 374

    • Assessment of the response of indigenous microflora and inoculated Bacillus licheniformis endospores in reconstituted skim milk to microwave and conventional heating systems by flow cytometry

      Li, F.; Santillan-Urquiza, E.; Cronin, U.; O'Meara, E.; McCarthy, W.; Hogan, S.A.; Wilkinson, M.G.; Tobin, J.T.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Enterprise Ireland; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-09-30)
      Heat treatment is one of the most widely used processing technologies in the dairy industry. Its primary purpose is to destroy microorganisms, both pathogenic and spoilage, to ensure the product is safe and has a reasonable shelf life. In this study microwave volumetric heating (MVH) was compared with a conventional tubular heat exchanger (THE), in terms of the effects of each at a range of temperatures (75°C, 85°C, 95°C, 105°C, 115°C, and 125°C) on indigenous microflora viability and the germination of inoculated Bacillus licheniformis endospores in reconstituted skim milk. To assess the heat treatment–related effects on microbial viability, classical agar-based tests were applied to obtain the counts of 4 various microbiological groups including total bacterial, thermophilic bacterial, mesophilic aerobic bacterial endospore, and thermophilic aerobic bacterial endospore counts, and additional novel insights into cell permeability and spore germination profiles post-heat treatment were obtained using real-time flow cytometry (FC) methods. No significant differences in the plate counts of the indigenous microorganisms tested, the plate counts of the inoculated B. licheniformis, or the relative percentage of germinating endospores were observed between MVH- and THE-treated samples, at equal temperatures in the range specified above, indicating that both methods inactivated inoculated endospores to a similar degree (up to 70% as measured by FC and 5 log reduction as measured by plate counting for some treatments of inoculated endospores). Furthermore, increased cell permeability of indigenous microflora was observed by FC after MVH compared with THE treatment of uninoculated skim milk, which was reflected in lower total bacterial count at a treatment temperature of 105°C. This work demonstrates the utility of FC as a rapid method for assessing cell viability and spore inactivation for postthermal processing in dairy products and overall provides evidence that MVH is at least as effective at eliminating native microflora and inoculated B. licheniformis endospores as THE.
    • Understanding preferences for and consumer behavior toward cheese among a cohort of young, educated, internationally mobile Chinese consumers

      Ouyang, Hao; Li, Bozhao; McCarthy, Mary; Miao, Song; Kilcawley, Kieran; Fenelon, Mark; Kelly, Alan; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Dairy Research Ireland; 0398 (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      This study explores the experiences of a cohort of young, educated, internationally mobile Chinese consumers with cheese and other dairy products, and how these experiences shape their behavior toward cheese products. In total, 41 Chinese students studying at an Irish university participated in 5 focus groups (n = 41, n = 7–10). Thematic analysis identified important factors that influence consumer behaviors regarding cheese products. Individuals' expectations toward cheese were embedded in their knowledge structures, which were constructed from previous experience. Participants had general positive expectations toward cheese due to associations with western-style foods and nostalgia; however, direct eating experience determined long-term behavior. When making a purchase decision, choice motives were weighed and negotiated to establish a fundamental driving factor for purchase. Perceived probability of choice motive fulfillment was important in determining purchase decisions, with many participants having low perceived ability to select cheese and limited motivation to engage with cheese due to limited perceived relevance of cheese to their daily food life. Individuals' innovativeness was an important factor that influences their openness to cheese products when moving beyond familiar foods. Opportunities exist such as using nostalgic cues as marketing tools to increase consumers' interest in cheese or combining cheese with Chinese food to increase perceived relevance of cheese to their daily food life. Providing information at point of purchase could reduce the disconnect between expectation and actual experience, and innovative cheese products may be developed to better fulfill important choice motives.
    • Basic principles in starch multi-scale structuration to mitigate digestibility: A review

      Chi, Chengdeng; Li, Xiaoxi; Huang, Shuangxia; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Yiping; Li, Lin; Miao, Song; National Natural Science Foundation of China; (31771930, 32072172) (Elsevier, 2021-03-31)
      BackgroundIn the human diet, starch makes a significant contribution to the maintenance of human nutrition and health due to its controlled digestibility. Starch digestion is controlled by its microstructure. Increasing developments in the modification of starch multi-scale structures that modulate digestibility have taken place due to increasing attention to health-promoting starchy foods. The process of starch structuration is a challenging concern in food science since the basic principles for designing starch structures with a specific digestibility are unknown. Scope and approachStarch multi-scale structures significantly affect digestibility. However, starch digestibility cannot be precisely modulated without a solid theory of starch structuration to inform the tailoring of the digestibility of starchy foods. In this review, the effects of starch multi-scale structures (fine structures of amylose and amylopectin; short-range ordered structures; helical, crystalline, lamellar, aggregate structures; and structures formed after food processing) on the digestibility and the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of starch digestion are comprehensively discussed. The key structures that can be manipulated for target-modulation of starch digestibility are summarized. Key findings and conclusionsBasic principles for mitigating starch digestibility, such as increasing the thickness of semi-crystalline lamellae and crystalline lamellae, nanoscale aggregates, V-, A-, or B-type crystals, double helices, long amylopectin helices, short-range ordered structures, the content of amylose fractions and high-branched amylopectin are established. Ordered starch structures, including short-range and long-range ordered structures, play critical roles in mitigating starch digestibility while faulty- and perfectly arranged helical, crystalline, lamellar structures, and nano aggregates are proposed to be slowly digestible and resistant starches, respectively.
    • Application of a LED-UV based light technology for decontamination of chicken breast fillets: Impact on microbiota and quality attributes

      Soro, Arturo B.; Whyte, Paul; Bolton, Declan J.; Tiwari, Brijesh K.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship program; Department of Agriculture, Food, and Marine; Food Institutional Research Measure (FIRM) program [Grant number: DAFM/17/F/275] (Elsevier, 2021-06-30)
      Light-emitting diode (LED) technologies are economical and efficient devices that could be considered in poultry processing as disinfection strategies. This study evaluated the efficacy of a LED-based device to reduce the microbial load on chicken meat and investigated it's impact on selected quality parameters. Quality parameters including pH, texture and color after LED-UV exposure and during subsequent storage for 7 days at 4 ̊C were investigated. Diced chicken breast fillets were exposed to UV light wavelengths of 255, 280, 300 and 365 nm for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min. A microbiological analysis was conducted on chicken samples to enumerate bacterial counts. Reductions between 1.17 and 1.67 log CFU/g for total viable counts of mesophilic, psychrophilic bacteria and total Enterobacteriaceae counts were observed, whereas, up to 2 log CFU/g was obtained for Pseudomonas and lactic acid bacteria groups after treatment with wavelengths of 280, 300 and 365 nm. Furthermore, color, texture and pH were not affected by exposure to UV light at 280 nm even following 7 days storage. Thus, LED-based technologies could be applied on poultry meat to reduce the levels of spoilage bacteria while maintaining quality attributes.
    • Advances in pre-treatment techniques and green extraction technologies for bioactives from seaweeds

      Ummat, Viruja; Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm; Tiwari, Brijesh Kumar; Science Foundation Ireland; 16/RC/3889 (Elsevier, 2021-04-30)
      BackgroundA wide range of conventional and non-conventional technologies have been employed to extract a wide range of bioactive compounds from the complex matrices of seaweeds. Green extraction technologies are increasingly employed to improve extraction efficiencies. Scope and approachThe objective of this review was to outline various approaches employed for the extraction of bioactives from seaweeds. This review covers various pretreatment methods generally employed prior to extraction, and their combinations with conventional and green extraction technologies. Novel technologies which can be employed with or without pretreatments to improve existing processes are also discussed. Key findingsThe role of pretreatments is of utmost importance and have significant impacts on the quality and quantity of target compounds. Combinations of different cell disruption technologies and extraction methods can enhance the extractability of compounds with higher purity and contribute towards improved process efficiency.
    • Formation and creaming stability of alginate/micro-gel particle-induced gel-like emulsions stabilized by soy protein isolate

      Duanquan Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; Teagasc; 201708350111; RMIS6821; MDDT1392 (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      Many strategies have been developed to improve stability of plant protein-stabilized emulsions, such as modifying properties of plant proteins, using plant protein-polysaccharide complexes, and forming gel-like emulsions. In this study, a novel method was investigated to enhance creaming stability of soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized emulsions by introducing alginate and alginate-based micro-gel particles to form gel-like emulsions. Gel-like emulsions could be obtained at high levels of micro-gel particles (>6.0%) in the presence of alginate (>0.1%), while the concentration of SPI-coated droplets (0–10%) played a relatively unimportant role, probably because the gelation mechanism was interactions between alginate molecules and Ca2+-induced micro-gel particles. Viscosity and creaming stability of emulsions and storage modulus (G′) of gel-like emulsions increased with increasing contents of micro-gel particles in emulsions. Emulsions without micro-gel particles showed extensive creaming during storage, and emulsions containing micro-gel particles were visually stable after storage for six weeks, although all samples showed good stability to coalescence. In addition, the presence of micro-gel particles in emulsions slightly decreased the bioaccessibility of encapsulated lycopene after in-vitro digestion. The method presented in this study was important for improving creaming stability of plant protein-stabilized emulsions and expanding application of plant protein-stabilized emulsions in food industry.
    • Rehydration properties of regular and agglomerated milk protein concentrate powders produced using nitrogen gas injection prior to spray drying

      McSweeney, David J.; Maidannyk, Valentyn; O'Mahony, James A.; McCarthy, Noel A.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15-F-679 (Elsevier, 2021-09-30)
      This study evaluated the effect of high-pressure nitrogen (N2) gas injection prior to spray drying on the subsequent rehydration properties of regular and agglomerated milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders. Conductivity measurements demonstrated a slower release of ions for powders produced using N2 injection (NI) as they took longer to wet and sink due to their lower density. However, analysis of particle size distribution on reconstitution at both 23 and 50 °C showed an improvement in powder dispersion with NI. Powder solubility, when measured at 23 °C, was higher for the NI powders, while agglomeration negatively impacted solubility. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed a faster diffusion of dye into MPC powder particles produced using NI. The improvement in powder dissolution with NI was attributed to higher porosity and the presence of air voids which facilitated increased water transfer and accelerated the breakdown of primary powder particles.
    • The effect of pre-treatment of protein ingredients for infant formula on their in vitro gastro-intestinal behaviour

      Brodkorb, André; Corrigan, Bernard; Kerry Group (Elsevier, 2020-07-27)
      Three milk products, skim milk powder (SMP), demineralised whey powder (DWP) and a whey dominant infant formula (60/40IF) and their corresponding partially hydrolysed products (SMPhyd, DWPhyd and 60/40hyd, respectively) were subjected to static infant in vitro gastro-intestinal (GI) digestion and their digesta were subsequently analysed for protein breakdown. The pre-hydrolysis of proteins provided a head-start in the gastric digestion process compared with the intact proteins, resulting in a higher proportion of small peptides (<1 kDa), a higher degree of hydrolysis and lower observable protein coagulation or curd formation in the gastric phase of the casein dominant systems in particular, which may lead to an earlier onset of gastric emptying in vivo. Little or no differences were detected during the intestinal phase. Hence pre-hydrolysis of proteins may be used as a strategy to lower gastric transit times, which may ease the gastric digestion of infant formulations.
    • Antimicrobial efects of airborne acoustic ultrasound and plasma activated water from cold and thermal plasma systems on bioflms

      M.G. Charoux, Clémentine; D. Patange, Apurva; M. Hinds, Laura; C. Simpson, Jeremy; P. O’Donnell, Colm; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Science Foundation Ireland; 17/CDA/4653 (Nature, 2020)
      Bacterial bioflms are difcult to inactivate due to their high antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new approaches are required for more efective bacterial bioflm inactivation. Airborne acoustic ultrasound improves bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity which is safe and environmentally friendly. While, plasma activated water (PAW) is attracting increasing attention due to its strong antimicrobial properties. This study determined efcacy of combined airborne acoustic ultrasound and plasma activated water from both cold and thermal plasma systems in inactivating Escherichia coli K12 bioflms. The application of airborne acoustic ultrasound (15 min) alone was signifcantly more efective in reducing E. coli counts in 48 and 72 h bioflms compared to 30 min treatment with PAW. The efect of airborne acoustic ultrasound was more pronounced when used in combination with PAW. Airborne acoustic ultrasound treatment for 15 min of the E. coli bioflm followed by treatment with PAW signifcantly reduced the bacterial count by 2.2—2.62 Log10 CFU/mL when compared to control bioflm treated with distilled water. This study demonstrates that the synergistic efects of airborne acoustic ultrasound and PAW for enhanced antimicrobial efects. These technologies have the potential to prevent and control bioflm formation in food and bio-medical applications.
    • The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone addition on microstructure, surface aspects, the glass transition temperature and structural strength of honey and coconut sugar powders

      Valentyn A., Maidannyk; Vinay S. N.; Miao, Song; Djali, Mohamad; McCarthy, Noel; Nurhadi, Bambang; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine.; DAIRYDRY 15-F-679 (Elsevier, 2022-12-31)
      Deep knowledge of the microstructure and physicochemical properties of polymeric food systems, such as honey powders (HP) and coconut sugars (CS), has practical importance for industry and end users. This study investigated the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) addition on microstructure, roughness, glass transition, α-relaxation temperatures and structural strength (S) of anhydrous complex carbohydrates mixtures. The addition of PVP slightly increased the glass transition and α-relaxation temperature for HP and CS systems as high molecular weight components. Systems with PVP addition showed “stronger” behaviour according to the S approach. Polarized light, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies showed slight differences in transparency and shapes between controls and systems with PVP addition. Surface morphological changes and roughness were investigated in this study to provide insight into HP and CS particles’ structural changes. Moreover, S-involved structural diagrams were built to determine S parameters for controlling the structural transformation of HP and CS systems with and without PVP addition. The results obtained in this work provide new information on polymer-carbohydrate interactions in complex food systems and structural transformations during their production and storage.
    • Fortified Fermented Rice-Acid Can Regulate the Gut Microbiota in Mice and Improve the Antioxidant Capacity

      Liu, Na; Qin, Likang; Lu, Xiafen; Zhao, Yuxuan; Miao, Song; National Natural Science Foundation of China (32060530), Technology platform and talent team plan of Guizhou. China ((2018)5251), Graduate Research Fund Project of Guizhou (YJSCXJH(2019)028). Industry-University-Research Cooperation Project of Guizhou University (701/700465172217) and China Scholarship Council (201906670006). (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-11-24)
      The study aimed to explore the effects of fortified fermented rice-acid on the antioxidant capacity of mouse serum and the gut microbiota. Hair characteristics, body mass index, intestinal villus height, intestinal crypt depth, serum antioxidant capacity, and gut microbiota of mice were first measured and the correlation between the antioxidant capacity of mouse serum and the gut microbiota was then explored. The mice in the lactic acid bacteria group (L-group), the mixed bacteria group (LY-group), and the rice soup group (R-group) kept their weight well and had better digestion. The mice in the L-group had the better hair quality (dense), but the hair quality in the R-group and the yeast group (Y-group) was relatively poor (sparse). In addition, the inoculation of Lactobacillus paracasei H4-11 (L. paracasei H4-11) and Kluyveromyces marxianus L1-1 (K. marxianus L1-1) increased the villus height/crypt depth of the mice (3.043 ± 0.406) compared to the noninoculation group (R-group) (2.258 ± 0.248). The inoculation of L. paracasei H4-11 and K. marxianus L1-1 in fermented rice-acid enhanced the blood antioxidant capacity of mouse serum (glutathione 29.503 ± 6.604 umol/L, malonaldehyde 0.687 ± 0.125 mmol/L, catalase 15.644 ± 4.618 U/mL, superoxide dismutase 2.292 ± 0.201 U/mL). In the gut microbiota of L-group and LY-group, beneficial microorganisms (Lactobacillus and Blautia) increased, but harmful microorganisms (Candidatus Arthromitus and Erysipelotrichales) decreased. L. paracasei H4-11 and K. marxianus L1-1 might have a certain synergistic effect on the improvement in antibacterial function since they reduced harmful microorganisms in the gut microbiota of mice. The study provides the basis for the development of fortified fermented rice-acid products for regulating the gut microbiota and improving the antioxidant capacity.
    • The consequence of supplementing with synbiotic systems on free amino acids, free fatty acids, organic acids, and some stability indexes of fermented milk

      Garavand, Farhad; Daly, David F.M.; Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G.; Enterprise Ireland; European Union Horizon 2020; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Career-Fit Plus action; MF20200171 (Elsevier BV, 2023-02)
      An investigation on the impacts of different prebiotics (inulin, galactofructose, soy protein isolate (SPI), and spirulina) and co-culturing with Lacticaseibacillus paracasei on the biological metabolites [free amino acids (FAAs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and organic acids] and stability parameters of fermented milk is presented. All fermented milks represented an increased FAA content compared with their milk counterparts, while the synbiotic fermented milk supplemented with galactofructose (YGF) and spirulina (YSP) were more efficient in this regard. The total organic acid content of the samples was not significantly affected by the type of prebiotics, and co-culturing by L. paracasei, YGF and YSP presented a different pattern, with the highest succinic acid (0.77 mm) and oxoglutaric acid (0.27 mm) contents, respectively. The thermal stability of the fermented milks did not change by loading various prebiotics and co-culturing, while the phase, colloidal, mechanical, and shear stability indexes were significantly affected.
    • Biofunctional, structural, and tribological attributes of GABA-enriched probiotic yoghurts containing Lacticaseibacillus paracasei alone or in combination with prebiotics

      Garavand, Farhad; Daly, David F.M.; G. Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura; Enterprise Ireland; European Union Horizon 2020; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Career-Fit Plus action; MF20200171 (Elsevier BV, 2022-06)
      This study investigated some biofunctional, structural, and tribological attributes of synbiotic yoghurts produced using Lacticaseibacillus paracasei as probiotic, and galactofructose, inulin, soy protein isolate, and spirulina as prebiotics. The highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production (99.63 μg mL−1) and glutamic acid consumption (98.39 μg mL−1) was found in spirulina-supplemented probiotic yoghurts (YSP), followed by galactofructose-supplemented probiotic yoghurts (YGF). However, YSP exhibited the lowest probiotic viability and the greatest pH drop. The biological activity of YSP, in terms of total phenolics, antioxidant potential, antihypertensive activity, and degree of hydrolysis was significantly higher than the other yoghurts. YSP showed lower friction coefficient in the high sliding velocities compared with other yoghurt samples. The best appearance and mouthfeel was rated by panellists for YSP, while the taste, texture, and overall acceptance of other yoghurts were preferred. Overall, the synbiotic yoghurts containing spirulina, and galactofructose represent a promising strategy for development of functional dairy products.
    • Curdlan enhances the structure of myosin gel model

      Li, Qianru; Wang, Peisen; Miao, Song; Zhang, Longtao; Zheng, Baodong; International Science and Technology Cooperation and Exchange Program of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; Fujian Provincial Foreign Cooperation Project; Fujian Provincial Science and Technology Program of Regional Development Project; KXGH17001; 2018I0003; et al. (Wiley, 2019-05)
      The aim of this work was to investigate the gelation mechanism of curdlan on surimi using a myosin gel model. Experimental results showed that with increased levels of curdlan, the water-holding capacity, gel strength, and storage modulus of a myosin gel first increased and then decreased. The optimum level of curdlan was found to be 1%. Moreover, myosin–curdlan mixed gel showed decreased water liquidity based on the results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. The enhanced physicochemical properties of myosin–curdlan mixed gel were attributed to the strengthened hydrogen bonding and to the uniform and compact network structure shown by Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results of this study suggest that curdlan has the potential to be used in surimi-based seafood products to enhance the gel structure.
    • Improving the physical and wettability properties of skim milk powders through agglomeration and lecithination

      Hailu , Yonas; Maidannyk, Valentyn A.; Murphy, Eoin; McCarthy, Noel; Enterprise Ireland; European Union Horizon 2020; 847402. (Elsevier BV, 2023-05-30)
      This study aimed to reduce the bulk density of skim milk powders (SMP) and improve subsequent wettability and dissolution by a combination of agglomeration and lecithination. Agglomeration significantly increased powder particle size from a D90 of 120–201 μm, and decreased tapped bulk density (0.73–0.65 g/cm3), although it led to increased friability (32.7%) compared to regular SMP (22.9%). Spraying lecithin on to SMP in the fluid bed improved wettability (8.94 s) compared to regular SMP (>300 s). Agglomeration without lecithination had no effect on powder wettability, similarly, adding lecithin in to liquid skim milk concentrate prior to drying did not improve subsequent powder wettability. Overall, improving the functionality of skim milk is quite complex, and while powder bulk density can be reduced by agglomeration, the particles remain susceptible to breakdown, and the wettability is relatively poor, although this can be improved by spraying lecithin directly on to the powder particles.
    • Effect of pasteurisation and foaming temperature on the physicochemical and foaming properties of nano-filtered mineral acid whey

      Purwanti, Nanik; Hogan, Sean; Maidannyk, Valentyn A.; Mulcahy, Shane; Murphy, Eoin; Enterprise Ireland; European Union; MF20180049; 713654 (Elsevier BV, 2022-10)
      Foaming can pose a major challenge during processing of acid whey (AW). In this study, nano-filtered mineral AW was collected from a commercial plant before (AW0) and after pasteurisation (AWpast; 75 °C, 15 s). Both AW samples were foamed at 21 °C and in addition, AWpast was foamed at 61 °C, corresponding to the temperature of in-plant foaming. Physicochemical, foaming, and surface properties of AW samples were compared. Foaming at 21 °C resulted in less pronounced foam characteristics for AWpast compared with AW0. Pasteurisation was found not to significantly affect physicochemical properties; however, interfacial kinetics during foaming were altered, which affected foaming behaviour. Foaming of AWpast at 61 °C produced more stable, “dry” foams. FTIR spectra confirmed the influence of protein unfolding at elevated temperatures on foaming, which was reversible upon cooling. This is significant as it gives processors a mean of controlling foaming through temperature control, where possible.
    • Variable Glycemic Responses to Intact and Hydrolyzed Milk Proteins in Overweight and Obese Adults Reveal the Need for Precision Nutrition

      Curran, Aoife M; Horner, Katy; O'Sullivan, Victoria; Nongonierma, Alice B; Le Maux, Solène; Murphy, Eoin; Kelly, Phil; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brennan, Lorraine; Food for Health Ireland, through Enterprise Ireland; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-01-04)
      Background Dietary modifications can contribute to improved pancreatic β cell function and enhance glycemic control. Objectives The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to investigate the potential of milk protein hydrolysates to modulate postprandial glucose response; 2) to assess individual responses; and 3) to explore the inter- and intraindividual reproducibility of the response. Methods A 14-d randomized crossover study investigated interstitial glucose levels of participants in response to 12% w/v milk protein drinks (intact caseinate and casein hydrolysate A and B) consumed in random order with a 2-d washout between treatments. Milk protein drinks were consumed immediately prior to study breakfast and evening meals. Twenty participants (11 men, 9 women) aged 50 ± 8 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 30.2 ± 3.1 were recruited. Primary outcome was glucose levels assessed at 15-min intervals with the use of glucose monitors. Results Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that for breakfast there was a significant difference across the 3 treatment groups (P = 0.037). The ability to reduce postprandial glucose was specific to casein hydrolysate B in comparison with intact caseinate (P = 0.039). However, despite this significant difference, further examination revealed that only 3 out of 18 individuals were classified as responders (P < 0.05). High intraclass correlation coefficients were obtained for glucose response to study meals (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.892 for breakfast with intact caseinate). The interindividual CVs were higher than the intraindividual CVs. Mean inter- and intraindividual CVs were 19.4% and 5.7%, respectively, for breakfast with intact caseinate. Conclusion Ingestion of a specific casein hydrolysate successfully reduced the postprandial glucose response; however, at an individual level only 3 participants were classified as responders, highlighting the need for precision nutrition. Exploration of high interindividual responses to nutrition interventions is needed, in combination with the development of precision nutrition, potentially through an n-of-1 approach. This clinical trial was registered as ISRCTN61079365 (
    • A Dairy-Derived Ghrelinergic Hydrolysate Modulates Food Intake In Vivo

      Howick, Ken; Wallace-Fitzsimons, Shauna; Kandil, Dalia; Chruścicka, Barbara; Calis, Mert; Murphy, Eoin; Murray, Brian; Fernandez, Ayoa; Barry, Kate; Kelly, Phil; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018-09-15)
      Recent times have seen an increasing move towards harnessing the health-promoting benefits of food and dietary constituents while providing scientific evidence to substantiate their claims. In particular, the potential for bioactive protein hydrolysates and peptides to enhance health in conjunction with conventional pharmaceutical therapy is being investigated. Dairy-derived proteins have been shown to contain bioactive peptide sequences with various purported health benefits, with effects ranging from the digestive system to cardiovascular circulation, the immune system and the central nervous system. Interestingly, the ability of dairy proteins to modulate metabolism and appetite has recently been reported. The ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1a) is a G-protein coupled receptor which plays a key role in the regulation of food intake. Pharmacological manipulation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-type 1a (GHSR-1a) receptor has therefore received a lot of attention as a strategy to combat disorders of appetite and body weight, including age-related malnutrition and the progressive muscle wasting syndrome known as cachexia. In this study, a milk protein-derivative is shown to increase GHSR-1a-mediated intracellular calcium signalling in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Significant increases in calcium mobilisation were also observed in a cultured neuronal cell line heterologously expressing the GHS-R1a. In addition, both additive and synergistic effects were observed following co-exposure of GHSR-1a to both the hydrolysate and ghrelin. Subsequent in vivo studies monitored standard chow intake in healthy male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after dosing with the casein hydrolysate (CasHyd). Furthermore, the provision of gastro-protected oral delivery to the bioactive in vivo may aid in the progression of in vitro efficacy to in vivo functionality. In summary, this study reports a ghrelin-stimulating bioactive peptide mixture (CasHyd) with potent effects in vitro. It also provides novel and valuable translational data supporting the potential role of CasHyd as an appetite-enhancing bioactive. Further mechanistic studies are required in order to confirm efficacy as a ghrelinergic bioactive in susceptible population groups.
    • Novel Beverages of Yerba-Mate and Soy: Bioactive Compounds and Functional Properties

      Frizon, Cátia; Perussello, Camila; Sturion, José; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary; CAPES Brazil (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel); Embrapa-Florestas (Colombo, PR, Brazil) (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018-03-06)
      In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this paper was to assess the psychochemical characteristics of two yerba-mate progenies (planted–PL and native–NT leaves) and then confirm whether the functional and nutritional properties of the main ingredients were conveyed to the beverage produced. The main raw material, yerba-mate leaves, and the drinks were assessed for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, physicochemical properties, and nutritional value. Planted leaves showed higher concentration of 5-CQA, caffeic acid and rutin than the native plant, whereas caffeine and theobromine were detected in larger amounts in native leaves. The nutritional profile of the drinks was compared to commercial beverages–either yerba-mate-based or soy-based. They indeed provide more protein, fiber, and fats than traditional yerba-mate beverages (chimarrão, tererê, and mate tea). Soy drinks currently marketed, for their turn, have similar caloric value and higher contents of lipid and protein as compared to our product, but are poor in fibers. NT drink (DPPH—IC50 92.83 and ABTS—8.18 μM Trolox/mL) had higher antioxidant activity than PL (IC50 147.06 and 5.63 μM Trolox/mL) due to the greater volume fraction of yerba-mate extract. NT beverage has more 5-CQA and caffeine in the same intake of tererê and traditional mate tea. This healthy beverage contributes to an increasing income to the food industry and yerba-mate producers, and environmental gains that are related to the exploration of natural resources.
    • DairyWater: striving for sustainability within the dairy processing industry in the Republic of Ireland

      Finnegan, William; Clifford, Eoghan; Goggins, Jamie; O'Leary, Niall; Dobson, Alan; Rowan, Neil; Xiao, Liwen; Miao, Song; Fitzhenry, Kelly; Leonard, Peter; et al. (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2018-08-08)
      This Review describes the objectives and methodology of the DairyWater project as it aims to aid the Irish dairy processing industry in achieving sustainability as it expands. With the abolition of European milk quotas in March 2015, the Republic of Ireland saw a surge in milk production. The DairyWater project was established in anticipation of this expansion of the Irish dairy sector in order to develop innovative solutions for the efficient management of water consumption, wastewater treatment and the resulting energy use within the country's dairy processing industry. Therefore, the project can be divided into three main thematic areas: dairy wastewater treatment technologies and microbial analysis, water re-use and rainwater harvesting and environmental assessment. In order to ensure the project remains as relevant as possible to the industry, a project advisory board containing key industry stakeholders has been established. To date, a number of large scale studies, using data obtained directly from the Irish dairy industry, have been performed. Additionally, pilot-scale wastewater treatment (intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor) and tertiary treatment (flow-through pulsed ultraviolet system) technologies have been demonstrated within the project. Further details on selected aspects of the project are discussed in greater detail in the subsequent cluster of research communications.