• Acrylamide formation in potato products

      Brunton, Nigel; Gormley, Ronan T.; Butler, Francis; Cummins, Enda; Danaher, Martin; O'Keeffe, Michael (Teagasc, 2006-08)
      Acrylamide, a substance classified as a potential carcinogen, occurs in heated starchy foods at concentrations many times in excess of levels permitted in drinking water. Early surveys indicated that levels of acrylamide in potato products such as French fries and potato crisps were the highest of the foodstuffs investigated. The present project addressed this issue by determining levels of acrylamide precursors (asparagine and reducing sugars) in raw potatoes and levels of acrylamide in (i) potato products from different storage regimes, (ii) spot-sampled potatoes purchased from a local supermarket, (iii) samples that received pre-treatments and were fried at different temperatures and (iv) French fries reheated in different ovens.A risk assessment of the estimated acrylamide intake from potato products for various cohorts of the Irish population was also conducted.
    • Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

      Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11F/050 (MDPI, 2016-03-25)
      The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.
    • The effect of organic acid and sodium chloride dips on the shelf-life of refrigerated Irish brown crab (Cancer pagurus) meat

      McDermott, A.; Whyte, Paul; Brunton, Nigel; Lyng, L.; Fagan, John; Bolton, Declan; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13F529 (Elsevier, 2018-08-18)
      Crab (Cancer pagurus) meat (white and brown) has a short shelf-life. Chemical treatments may inhibit microbial spoilage and extend shelf-life. The effect of 5% organic acids (lactic acid (LA), acetic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA)) and 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) on TVC (mesophiles and psychrophiles), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated during storage (2 °C for 12 days). AA was the most effective treatment for white meat, reducing the initial TVCm and TVCp by 1.6 and 1.8 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and extended the shelf life to 8–11.5 days, compared to 5 days for untreated control samples. LA treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the initial TVC, but the shelf life was only increased by 3 days. CA and NaCl treatments had no significant effect (P > 0.05). A similar pattern was observed for brown meat samples, although the shelf life was increased by a maximum of 1–3 days. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and LAB was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on AA treated samples only. It was concluded that the shelf-life of crab meat may be extended by up to 3 days using lactic acid and more than doubled using acetic acid.
    • Effects of cold atmospheric plasma on mackerel lipid and protein oxidation during storage

      Pérez-Andrés, Juan M.; de Alba, María; Harrison, Sabine M.; Brunton, Nigel; Cullen, P. J.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; European Union; Joint Programming Initiative; 692276; 15/HDHL/1 PROHEALTH (Elsevier BV, 2019-09-27)
      The present study investigated the effects of cold atmospheric plasma on the shelf-life stability of lipids and proteins of commercially packaged mackerel fillets. The results showed no significant effects on lipid oxidation between the control samples and those treated at 80 kV for extended treatment times of 5 min using an in-package plasma system. In addition, no significant changes (p > 0.05) were found in the fatty acid composition or nutritional quality indices after treatment. Finally, the formation of carbonyls was accelerated by plasma treatment at the end of the storage period for 4 °C and 8 °C. These results suggest that cold atmospheric plasma technologies are potentially suitable as processing technologies for the fish industry.
    • Efficacy of ultraviolet light (UV-C) and pulsed light (PL) for the microbiological decontamination of raw salmon (Salmo salar) and food contact surface materials

      Pedrós-Garrido, S.; Condón-Abanto, S.; Clemente, I.; Beltrán, J.A.; Lyng, James G.; Bolton, Declan; Brunton, Nigel; Whyte, Paul; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13F458 (Elsevier, 2018-10-03)
      The decontamination effect of two light-based technologies on salmon, polyethylene (PE) and stainless steel (SS) was evaluated. Optimization of treatment conditions for ultraviolet light (UV-C) and pulsed light (PL) was carried out on raw salmon, obtaining inactivation levels of 0.9 and 1.3 log CFU/g respectively. The effects of treatments on several microbial groups present in salmon were then evaluated. For both technologies, Pseudomonas spp. were found to be the most resistant group of microorganisms tested. Three different strains from within this group were isolated and speciated, including a P. fluorescens strain which was selected for subsequent studies. PE and SS surfaces were inoculated with a suspension of the P. fluorescens suspended in a ‘salmon juice’ solution, and treated with UV-C and PL at different doses (mJ/cm2). PE surfaces were effectively decontaminated a low doses for both technologies, with a reduction of >4 log cycles observed. Decontamination of SS was also effective when treated with PL, although at higher doses than for PE. When SS was treated with UV-C, the maximum reduction of P. fluorescens achieved was 2 log cycles, even at the highest dose.
    • Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices

      Aguilo-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Generalitat of Catalonia; 06TNITAFRC6; et al. (MDPI, 2015-03-02)
      The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100–1500), pulse frequency (10–200 Hz) and pulse width (10–30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.
    • Optimisation and validation of ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of potato steroidal alkaloids

      Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/050 (Elsevier, 2015-06-09)
      An ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) method for quantification of potato steroidal alkaloids, namely α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine was developed and validated. Three different column chemistries, i.e. ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) C18, hydrophilic lipophilic interaction and amide columns, were assessed. The BEH C18 column showed best separation and sensitivity for the alkaloids. Validation data (inter-day and intra-day combined) for accuracy and recovery ranged from 94.3 to 107.7% and 97.0 to 103.5%, respectively. The accuracy data were within the acceptable range of 15% as outlined in the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines. The recovery data were consistent and reproducible with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 6.2 to 9.7%. In addition, precision of the method also met the criteria of the USFDA with CV values lower than 15% even at lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), while the permissible variation is considered acceptable below 20%. The limit of detection and LLOQ of the four alkaloids were in the range of 0.001–0.004 μg/mL whereas the linearities of the standard curves were between 0.980 and 0.995.
    • Profiling of Phytochemicals in Tissues from Sclerocarya birrea by HPLC-MS and Their Link with Antioxidant Activity

      Russo, Daniela; Kenny, Owen; Smyth, Thomas J.; Milella, Luigi; Diop, Moussoukhoye Sissokho; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Hindawi, 2013-04-29)
      High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was employed to investigate the differences in phytochemicals in roots, bark, and leaf of Sclerocarya birrea (marula) for methanol and water extracts that exhibited the best antioxidant activities. As many as 36 compounds were observed in the extracts of these tissues of which 27 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. The HPLC-MS/MS results showed flavonoid glycosides were prominent in leaf extracts while the galloylated tannins were largely in bark and root extracts. Four flavonoid glycosides that were reported for the first time in the marula leaf have been identified. The HPLC-MS/MS studies also illustrated different degrees (highest degree = 3) of oligomerisation and galloylation of tannins in the bark and root extracts.
    • Recovery of Steroidal Alkaloids from Potato Peels Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction

      Rawson, Ashish; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 08/RD/AFRC/673 (MDPI, 2015-05-13)
      A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively
    • A Review of Extraction and Analysis of Bioactives in Oat and Barley and Scope for Use of Novel Food Processing Technologies

      Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine.; 11/SF/317 (MDPI, 2015-06-12)
      Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids) and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.
    • Spoilage indicator bacteria in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored on ice for 10 days

      Fogarty, Colin; Whyte, Paul; Brunton, Nigel; Lyng, James; Smyth, Conor; Fagan, John; Bolton, Declan; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13F458 (Elsevier, 2018-08-02)
      This study investigated the growth of indicator and spoilage bacteria on whole Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored aerobically at 2 °C. On days 0, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 10 microbiological analysis was carried out on inner flesh and outer skin samples as well as outer skin swabs (25 cm2 surface areas). Mesophilic total viable counts (TVCm) on skin, flesh and swab samples increased from 1.9, 1.1 and 2.7 log10 CFUcm2 to 6.0, 5.1 and 5.7 log10 CFU/cm2 after 10 days, respectively. Psychrotrophic counts (TVCp), increased from 2.2, 1.8 and 3.1 log10 CFU/cm2 to 6.2, 5.3 and 5.9 log10 CFU/cm2, for skin, flesh and swab samples respectively. Hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria (HSPB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Photobacterium spp. grew well with similar growth rates (mean generation times of 17.2–26 h). It was concluded that the shelf-life of salmon at 2 °C was approximately 10 days and that HSPB, LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Br. thermosphacta and Photobacterium spp. may be a better indicator of fish spoilage rather than TVC growth, with a count of 5–6 log10 CFU/cm2 indicating the end of shelf-life.
    • Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from potato peels: profiling and kinetic modelling

      Kumari, Bibha; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Hossain, Mohammad Billal; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine; FIRM/11/F/050 (Wiley, 2017-02-14)
      Ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) at 33 and 42 kHz has been investigated in the extraction of polyphenols from peels of two potato varieties, cream‐skinned Lady Claire (LC) and pink‐skinned Lady Rosetta (LR), commonly used in snack food production. Extraction efficacy between the UAE‐untreated (control) and the UAE‐treated extracts was assessed on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities (DPPH and FRAP). Application of UAE showed significantly higher recovery of phenolic compounds compared to solid–liquid extraction process alone. Lower ultrasonic frequency (33 kHz) was more effective in recovering polyphenols compared to 42 kHz ultrasonic treatment. The liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry revealed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the most prevalent phenolics in LR peels, whereas caffeic acid was dominant in LC peels. Peleg's equation showed a good correlation (R2 > 0.92) between the experimental values and the predicted values on the kinetics of UAE of phenolic compounds.