• Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants Circulating among Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolates Recovered from Broilers in Ireland Over a One-Year Period

      Lynch, Caoimhe T.; Lynch, Helen; Burke, Sarah; Hawkins, Kayleigh; Buttimer, Colin; McCarthy, Conor; Egan, John; Whyte, Paul; Bolton, Declan; Coffey, Aidan; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-06-08)
      Campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, very often associated with poultry consumption. Thermophilic Campylobacter (Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli) isolates (n = 158) recovered from broiler neck skin and caecal contents in Ireland over a one-year period, resistant to at least one of three clinically relevant antimicrobial classes, were screened for resistance determinants. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 99) harboured the C257T nucleotide mutation (conferring the Thr-86-Ile substitution) in conjunction with other synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, which may have epidemiological value. The A2075G nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitutions in L4 and L22 were detected in all erythromycin-resistant isolates (n = 5). The tetO gene was detected in 100% (n = 119) of tetracycline-resistant isolates and three of which were found to harbour the mosaic tetracycline resistance gene tetO/32/O. Two streptomycin-resistant C. jejuni isolates (isolated from the same flock) harboured ant(6)-Ib, located in a multidrug resistance genomic island, containing aminoglycoside, streptothricin (satA) and tetracycline resistance genes (truncated tetO and mosaic tetO/32/O). The ant(6)-Ie gene was identified in two streptomycin-resistant C. coli isolates. This study highlights the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance determinants among chicken-associated Campylobacter isolates, through horizontal gene transfer or clonal expansion of resistant lineages. The stability of such resistance determinants is compounded by the fluidity of mobile genetic element.
    • Complete Genome Sequences of vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293, Two Bacteriophages with Specificity for Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Serotypes 4b and 4e

      Casey, A.; Kieran, Jordan; Coffey, Aidan; McAuliffe, Olivia; European Union; Safefood; PROMISE 265877; FOODSEG 266061 (American Society for Microbiology, 09/04/2015)
      Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for the rare disease listeriosis, which is associated with the consumption of contaminated food products. We report here the complete genome sequences of vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293, phages isolated from environmental sources and that have host specificity for L. monocytogenes strains of the 4b and 4e serotypes.
    • Transcriptome analysis of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to biocide stress reveals a multi-system response involving cell wall synthesis, sugar uptake, and motility

      Casey, A.; Fox, Edward M.; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Coffey, Aidan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Jordan, Kieran; European Union; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 265877; 266061 (Frontiers Media SA, 28/02/2014)
      Listeria monocytogenes is a virulent food-borne pathogen most often associated with the consumption of “ready-to-eat” foods. The organism is a common contaminant of food processing plants where it may persist for extended periods of time. A commonly used approach for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in the processing environment is the application of biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds. In this study, the transcriptomic response of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes (strain 6179) on exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of the quaternary ammonium compound benzethonium chloride (BZT) was assessed. Using RNA-Seq, gene expression levels were quantified by sequencing the transcriptome of L. monocytogenes 6179 in the presence (4 ppm) and absence of BZT, and mapping each data set to the sequenced genome of strain 6179. Hundreds of differentially expressed genes were identified, and subsequent analysis suggested that many biological processes such as peptidoglycan biosynthesis, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and carbohydrate uptake, were involved in the response of L. monocyotogenes to the presence of BZT. The information generated in this study further contributes to our understanding of the response of bacteria to environmental stress. In addition, this study demonstrates the importance of using the bacterium's own genome as a reference when analysing RNA-Seq data.