• Listeria monocytogenes in Milk Products

      Jordan, Kieran; Hunt, Karen; Dalmasso, Marion (Springer International Publishing, 2016-04-13)
      Milk and milk products are frequently identified as vectors for transmission of Listeria monocytogenes. Milk can be contaminated at farm level either by indirect external contamination from the farm environment or less frequently by direct contamination of the milk from infection in the animal. Pasteurisation of milk will kill L. monocytogenes, but post-pasteurisation contamination, consumption of unpasteurised milk and manufacture of unpasteurised milk products can lead to milk being the cause of outbreaks of listeriosis. Therefore, there is a concern that L. monocytogenes in milk could lead to a public health risk. To protect against this risk, there is a need for awareness surrounding the issues, hygienic practices to reduce the risk and adequate sampling and analysis to verify that the risk is controlled. This review will highlight the issues surrounding L. monocytogenes in milk and milk products, including possible control measures. It will therefore create awareness about L. monocytogenes, contributing to protection of public health.
    • Process environment sampling can help to reduce the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities

      Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran; European Union; 265877 (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2013)
      The occurrence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes strains in food processing environments pose a risk of cross-contamination to food. The control of these strains is thus essential to ensure food safety. In the present study, 205 samples were collected from a food processing facility between May 2012 to February 2013 and analysed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by the ISO11290 standard method. L. monocytogenes isolates were differentiated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Up to 55% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes until October 2012. Advice was given on the implementation of corrective actions regarding cleaning and disinfection procedures and workflows. This resulted in a decrease in the number of positive samples, reflecting the reduction of L. monocytogenes in the processing environment. Eight pulsotypes were found in the food processing facility environment, mainly on non-food contact surfaces. One type was identified as persistent as it was isolated on each sampling occasion and constituted more than 71% of the isolates collected. It was the only type found in the processing environment after the implementation of corrective actions. This work demonstrates that processing environment sampling plans are effective to assess hygiene and implement corrective actions. This contributes to prevention of contamination events and consequently to assuring the safety of the food product.
    • Viromes of one year old infants reveal the impact of birth mode on microbiome diversity

      McCann, Angela; Ryan, Feargal J.; Stockdale, Stephen R.; Dalmasso, Marion; Blake, Tony; Ryan, C. Anthony; STANTON, CATHERINE; Mills, Susan; Ross, Paul R.; Hill, Colin; et al. (PeerJ, 2018-05-07)
      Establishing a diverse gut microbiota after birth is being increasingly recognised as important for preventing illnesses later in life. It is well established that bacterial diversity rapidly increases post-partum; however, few studies have examined the infant gut virome/phageome during this developmental period. We performed a metagenomic analysis of 20 infant faecal viromes at one year of age to determine whether spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) or caesarean section (CS) influenced viral composition. We find that birth mode results in distinctly different viral communities, with SVD infants having greater viral and bacteriophage diversity. We demonstrate that CrAssphage is acquired early in life, both in this cohort and two others, although no difference in birth mode is detected. A previous study has shown that bacterial OTU’s (operational taxonomic units) identified in the same infants could not discriminate between birth mode at 12 months of age. Therefore, our results indicate that vertical transmission of viral communities from mother to child may play a role in shaping the early life microbiome, and that birth mode should be considered when studying the early life gut virome.
    • Virulence Gene Sequencing Highlights Similarities and Differences in Sequences in Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 1/2a and 4b Strains of Clinical and Food Origin From 3 Different Geographic Locations

      Poimenidou, Sofia V.; Dalmasso, Marion; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Fox, Edward M.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Jordan, Kieran; European Union; 265877 (Frontiers, 2018-06-05)
      The prfA-virulence gene cluster (pVGC) is the main pathogenicity island in Listeria monocytogenes, comprising the prfA, plcA, hly, mpl, actA, and plcB genes. In this study, the pVGC of 36 L. monocytogenes isolates with respect to different serotypes (1/2a or 4b), geographical origin (Australia, Greece or Ireland) and isolation source (food-associated or clinical) was characterized. The most conserved genes were prfA and hly, with the lowest nucleotide diversity (π) among all genes (P < 0.05), and the lowest number of alleles, substitutions and non-synonymous substitutions for prfA. Conversely, the most diverse gene was actA, which presented the highest number of alleles (n = 20) and showed the highest nucleotide diversity. Grouping by serotype had a significantly lower π value (P < 0.0001) compared to isolation source or geographical origin, suggesting a distinct and well-defined unit compared to other groupings. Among all tested genes, only hly and mpl were those with lower nucleotide diversity in 1/2a serotype than 4b serotype, reflecting a high within-1/2a serotype divergence compared to 4b serotype. Geographical divergence was noted with respect to the hly gene, where serotype 4b Irish strains were distinct from Greek and Australian strains. Australian strains showed less diversity in plcB and mpl relative to Irish or Greek strains. Notable differences regarding sequence mutations were identified between food-associated and clinical isolates in prfA, actA, and plcB sequences. Overall, these results indicate that virulence genes follow different evolutionary pathways, which are affected by a strain's origin and serotype and may influence virulence and/or epidemiological dominance of certain subgroups.
    • Virulence Gene Sequencing Highlights Similarities and Differences in Sequences in Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 1/2a and 4b Strains of Clinical and Food Origin From 3 Different Geographic Locations

      Poimenidou, Sofia V.; Dalmasso, Marion; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Fox, Edward M.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Jordan, Kieran; European Union; 265877 (Frontiers, 2018-06-05)
      The prfA-virulence gene cluster (pVGC) is the main pathogenicity island in Listeria monocytogenes, comprising the prfA, plcA, hly, mpl, actA, and plcB genes. In this study, the pVGC of 36 L. monocytogenes isolates with respect to different serotypes (1/2a or 4b), geographical origin (Australia, Greece or Ireland) and isolation source (food-associated or clinical) was characterized. The most conserved genes were prfA and hly, with the lowest nucleotide diversity (π) among all genes (P < 0.05), and the lowest number of alleles, substitutions and non-synonymous substitutions for prfA. Conversely, the most diverse gene was actA, which presented the highest number of alleles (n = 20) and showed the highest nucleotide diversity. Grouping by serotype had a significantly lower π value (P < 0.0001) compared to isolation source or geographical origin, suggesting a distinct and well-defined unit compared to other groupings. Among all tested genes, only hly and mpl were those with lower nucleotide diversity in 1/2a serotype than 4b serotype, reflecting a high within-1/2a serotype divergence compared to 4b serotype. Geographical divergence was noted with respect to the hly gene, where serotype 4b Irish strains were distinct from Greek and Australian strains. Australian strains showed less diversity in plcB and mpl relative to Irish or Greek strains. Notable differences regarding sequence mutations were identified between food-associated and clinical isolates in prfA, actA, and plcB sequences. Overall, these results indicate that virulence genes follow different evolutionary pathways, which are affected by a strain's origin and serotype and may influence virulence and/or epidemiological dominance of certain subgroups.