• Conserved redox-dependent DNA binding of ROXY glutaredoxins with TGA transcription factors

      Gutsche, Nora; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Maß, Lucia; O'Donoghue, Martin; Busch, Andrea; Lauri, Andrea; Schubert, Veit; Zachgo, Sabine; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; SPP 1710 ZA 259/7‐1; et al. (Wiley, 2017-12-14)
      The Arabidopsis thaliana CC‐type glutaredoxin (GRX) ROXY1 and the bZIP TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) interact in the nucleus and together regulate petal development. The CC‐type GRXs exist exclusively in land plants, and in contrast to the ubiquitously occurring CPYC and CGFS GRX classes, only the CC‐type GRXs expanded strongly during land plant evolution. Phylogenetic analyses show that TGA TFs evolved before the CC‐type GRXs in charophycean algae. MpROXY1/2 and MpTGA were isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha to analyze regulatory ROXY/TGA interactions in a basal land plant. Homologous and heterologous protein interaction studies demonstrate that nuclear ROXY/TGA interactions are conserved since the occurrence of CC‐type GRXs in bryophytes and mediated by a conserved ROXY C‐terminus. Redox EMSA analyses show a redox‐sensitive binding of MpTGA to the cis‐regulatory as‐1‐like element. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MpTGA binds together with MpROXY1/2 to this motif under reducing conditions, whereas this interaction is not observed under oxidizing conditions. Remarkably, heterologous complementation studies reveal a strongly conserved land plant ROXY activity, suggesting an ancestral role for CC‐type GRXs in modulating the activities of TGA TFs. Super‐resolution microscopy experiments detected a strong colocalization of ROXY1 with the active form of the RNA polymerase II in the nucleus. Together, these data shed new light on the function of ROXYs and TGA TFs and the evolution of redox‐sensitive transcription regulation processes, which likely contributed to adapt land plants to novel terrestrial habitats.