• High Pressure Processing of Dairy Foods

      Donnelly, W.J.; Beresford, Tom; Lane, C.N.; Walsh-O'Grady, D.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Murphy, P.M.; O'Reilly, Conor; Morgan, S.M.; Ross, R Paul; et al. (Teagasc, 2000-09-01)
      The term High Pressure Processing (HPP) is used to describe the technology whereby products are exposed to very high pressures in the region of 50 - 800 MPa (500 - 8000 Atmospheres). The potential application of HPP in the food industry has gained popularity in recent years, due to developments in the construction of HPP equipment which makes the technology more affordable. Applying HPP to food products results in modifications to interactions between individual components, rates of enzymatic reactions and inactivation of micro-organisms. The first commercial HPP products appeared on the market in 1991 in Japan, where HPP is now being used commercially for products such as jams, sauces, fruit juices, rice cakes and desserts. The pioneering research into the application of HPP to milk dates back to the end of the 19th century. Application of HPP to milk has been shown to modify its gel forming characteristics as well as reducing its microbial load. HPP offers the potential to induce similar effects to those generated by heat on milk protein. Recent reports have also indicated that HPP could accelerate the ripening of cheese. Much of the Irish cheese industry is based on the production of Cheddar cheese, the ripening time for which can vary from 4 - 12 months or more, depending on grade. A substantial portion of the cost associated with Cheddar manufacture is therefore attributed to storage under controlled conditions during ripening. Thus, any technology which may accelerate the ripening of Cheddar cheese while maintaining a balanced flavour and texture is of major economic significance. While food safety is a dominant concern, consumers are increasingly demanding foods that maintain their natural appearance and flavour, while free of chemical preservatives. HPP offers the food industry the possibility of achieving these twin goals as this technology can lead to reduced microbial loads without detrimentally effecting the nutritional or sensory qualities of the product. The development of food ingredients with novel functional properties offers the dairy industry an opportunity to revitalise existing markets and develop new ones. HPP can lead to modifications in the structure of milk components, in particular protein, which may provide interesting possibilities for the development of high value nutritional and functional ingredients. Hence these projects set out to investigate the potential of HPP in the dairy industry and to identify products and processes to which it could be applied.
    • Identification of the key compounds responsible for Cheddar cheese flavour

      Beresford, Tom; Wallace, J.; Aherne, Seamus; Drinan, Finbarr; Eason, D.; Corcoran, M.O.; Mulholland, E.; Hannon, John A. (Teagasc, 2000-09-01)
      There is a poor understanding of the relationship between organoleptic assessment of cheese and quantitative analysis of flavour compounds. Further, the contribution of particular cheese-making parameters such as ripening temperature and starter culture has not been fully elucidated. During the ripening of most cheese varieties complex chemical conversions occur within the cheese matrix. In most cheese varieties breakdown of protein is the most important flavour development pathway. The primary cheese protein, casein, is degraded enzymatically to short peptides and free amino acids. The agents primarily responsible for these conversions are the residual rennet that is retained in the cheese curd at the end of the manufacturing phase and the proteinases and peptidases that are associated with the starter bacteria. While the rate and degree of proteolysis are of vital significance for desired flavour development, the direct products of proteolysis do not fully define cheese flavour. Much research is now demonstrating that the further biochemical and chemical conversions of the products of proteolysis, in particular the amino acids, are necessary for full flavour development. The products produced by these pathways are volatile at low boiling points and are thus released during mastication of the cheese in the mouth. Many of these volatile compounds contribute to the flavour sensation experienced by the consumer. A very wide spectrum of such compounds have been isolated from cheese, in excess of two hundred in some cheese varieties. It is now generally accepted that there is no individual compound which defines cheese flavour completely and that the flavour sensation is the result of numerous compounds present in the correct proportions. This has become known as the Component Balance Theory . The application of modern analytical techniques as proposed in this project would provide a greater understanding of the significant flavour compounds in Cheddar cheese and help to identify the impact of specific cheese-making parameters such as starter flora and ripening temperature on the production of volatile flavour compounds. This data would assist the general programme on flavour improvement of cheese which should ultimately benefit the cheese manufacturer. Hence this project set out to develop methods to identify the key flavour compounds in Cheddar cheese. These techniques would then be applied to experimental and commercial cheeses during ripening in an effort to identify key compounds and the influence of starter cultures and ripening temperature on their production.
    • Influence of Enterococci and Thermophilic Starter Bacteria on Cheddar Cheese Flavour

      Beresford, Tom; Cogan, Tim; Wallace, J.; Drinan, D.; Tobin, S.; Piveteau, P.; Carroll, N.; Deasy, B. (Teagasc, 1998-09-01)
      This project set out to identify suitable enterococci and thermophilic starter strains which could be added to the cheese during manufacture (as starter adjuncts) with the specific aims of enhancing flavour during ripening as well as facilitating flavour diversity - a trait sought by many commercial Cheddar companies. This project confirmed the potential of thermophilic lactic acid strains to affect flavour when used as starter adjuncts in Cheddar cheese manufacture. Their use can also lead to the development of novel flavours. Many adjunct cultures proposed to-date to enhance Cheddar flavour are composed of strains of lactococcal starter, selected for their flavouring capacity. However, application of such strains in industry would lead to increased probability of phage attack on the primary starter. On the other hand, thermophilic lactic acid strains are phage unrelated to conventional starter and thus would not lead to the introduction of starter specific phage into the cheese plant. A thermophilic strain from the Moorepark collection (DPC 4571) was shown to have major commercial potential as a flavour enhancer.
    • Model System for the Production of Enzyme Modified Cheese (EMC) Flavours.

      Kilcawley, Kieran; Beresford, Tom; Lee, B.; Wilkinson, M.G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust (Teagasc, 01/04/2002)
      Natural cheese flavour ingredients, in the form of enzyme modified cheeses (EMCs), are widely used in the convenience food industry and can provide high volume added opportunities for the cheese industry. Many EMCs are produced using commercial enzyme preparations and previous studies have indicated that they contain side activities in addition to their stated main activity (see DPRC Report No.10). Therefore, it is critical that the exact enzyme complement of these preparations are known before they can be used to produce EMC of specific requirements on a consistent basis. The scientific basis of rapid enzyme mediated flavour formation in the production of EMCs is not fully understood. Consequently this knowledge gap is a major obstacle in the development of high value cheese flavour ingredients. Hence, a major objective of this project was to deepen the scientific understanding of flavour formation with a view to the production of natural enzyme-mediated dairy flavour ingredients with commercial potential. The ultimate aim was to develop the technology to produce customised high value dairy flavour ingredients in an optimised process.
    • Novel and Speciality Cheeses - Broadening the National Cheese Base

      Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Wilkinson, M.G.; Beresford, Tom; Meehan, Hilary; Cowan, Cathal; Delahunty, Conor; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Kelly, Alan L. (Teagasc, 2002-04-01)
      The Irish dairy industry is considered vulnerable to the price pressures of the commodity market, on which it is highly dependent. Hence, a broadening of the product base, would reduce exposure to this market while offering the potential of exploiting the lucrative added value market. This involves risks and challenges. The cheese market in particular continues to grow and investment in innovative products have in some cases been highly successful. However, a number of obstacles confront Irish cheese manufacturers. These include: seasonality of milk supply, strong tradition of Cheddar production, knowledge gaps in industrial-scale specialty cheese manufacture, and a reticence to commit significant investment, particularly in plant. To address some of these obstacles a project was undertaken with the overall objective of developing a range of cheeses with novel flavour, texture and appearance which were complementary to existing manufacturing plant and technologies. The project was built on the knowledge, skills base and flexible cheese manufacturing plant developed in a previous study (see DPRC Report No. 9), and had the following specific objectives: * assess consumer preferences, * develop a range of novel cheeses capable of being manufactured wholly, or in part, on existing plant, * determine the effects of manipulation of process variables on novel hybrid composition and ripening, * assess market potential and consumer reaction to selected cheeses, * determine the relationships between cheese composition and sensory characteristics, and * present product options to Irish industry.
    • Role of Lactobacilli in Flavour Development of Cheddar Cheese.

      Beresford, Tom; Cogan, Tim; Rea, Mary; Drinan, Finbarr; Fitzsimons, Nora; Brennan, N.; Kenny, Owen; Fox, P.F. (Teagasc, 2001-05-01)
      Cheddar cheese is a complex microbial ecosystem. The internal cheese environment, in particular of hard and semi-hard cheeses, is not conducive to the growth of many microorganisms. At the beginning of ripening the dominant microorganisms are the starter bacteria which are present at high levels (~109/g). However, during ripening, non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) grow from relatively low levels (<103/g) at the beginning of ripening, to 108/g within 6 - 8 weeks. Other bacteria, e.g. enterococci and staphylococci, may also be present but in much lower numbers. In a previous study of mature and extra mature Cheddar cheeses from different manufacturers (see End of Project Report No. 1), it was found that the NSLAB population was dominated by strains of Lb. paracasei. However, their contribution to cheese flavour and their source(s) are still unclear, nor is it known if the NSLAB flora is unique to each plant. Hence, understanding the growth of this group of organisms in cheese is a key to defining their role in flavour development. The biochemistry of flavour development in cheese is poorly understood. For most cheese varieties, including Cheddar, proteolysis, which results in the accumulation of free amino acids, is of vital importance for flavour development. Increasing evidence suggests that the main contribution of amino acids is as substrates for the development of more complex flavour and aroma compounds. The manner by which such compounds are generated in cheese is currently the focus of much research. Starter bacteria have been shown to contain a range of enzymes capable of facilitating the conversion of amino acids to potential flavour compounds. However, the potential of lactobacilli (NSLAB) to produce similar enzymes has only recently been investigated. Hence, although, it is generally accepted that the cheese starter flora is the primary defining influence on flavour development, the contribution of NSLAB is also considered significant. The objectives of these studies were: - to develop a greater understanding of the behaviour of NSLAB in cheese, and - to identify suitable strains, and other cheese bacteria, to be used as starter adjuncts for flavour improvement.
    • Significance of Lactobacilli in Cheddar Cheese

      Cogan, Tim; Beresford, Tom; Drinan, Finbarr; Palles, Tony; Fitzsimons, Nora (Teagasc, 1998-09-01)
      The objectives of this project were to isolate and identify the non-starter lactobacilli in mature Cheddar cheese, identify strains which impart mature flavours to cheese and determine their role in developing cheese flavour. The main conclusions were as follows: Based on an analysis of 18 mature Cheddar cheeses, selected from 7 commercial manufacturers, non-starter lactic acid bacteria typically numbered, as expected, 106-108 per gram and were dominated (97 percent) by Lactobacillus paracasei. Although a small number of strains (typically 1 to 4) was found in each cheese there was considerable strain diversity in cheeses within as well as between manufacturing plants. When selected strains were investigated for survival and flavour enhancement when added (as starter adjuncts) with the normal starter cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, it was found that they remained dominant for up to 3 months of ripening. Commercial grading of these cheeses at 3 and 6 months confirmed that the added strains did modify flavour development and one (DPC 4103), in particular, had a beneficial effect. It was confirmed that two selected strains of non-starter lactobacilli were capable of metabolising citrate under the conditions of Cheddar cheese ripening and, consequently, if present in sufficient numbers, would influence flavour development. The work was greatly facilitated by the successful and novel adaptation of a modern rapid molecular technique (RAPD) for species and strain classification. In summary these studies found that one species of lactobacilli (Lb. paracasei) was the dominant non-starter lactic acid bacteria in mature Cheddar cheese. Although a wide variety of strains were identified, only a few were found in any particular cheese, suggesting their likely role in cheese flavour diversity even within the same manufacturing plant. This suggests the potential for flavour control or enhancement through the selective and controlled use of non-starter lactic acid bacteria. Preliminary investigations of the metabolism of those organisms supports this view and a follow-up study now in progress should provide greater clarity on this matter.