• Control of Blown Pack Spoilage in Vacuum Packaged Meat

      Bolton, Declan; Moschonas, Galatios; Sheridan, James J.; Downey, Gerard; National Development Plan (Teagasc, 01/10/2009)
      Blown pack spoilage (BPS) represents a significant commercial loss to Irish meat processors. This research discovered that the organisms causing BPS are ubiquitous in the abattoir environment, making eradication very difficult. The risk of BPS is best managed through a process of regular treatment of plant and equipment with a sporicidal agent such as peroxyacetic acid, good hygiene to minimise carcass contamination and removal of the heat shrinkage stage during vacuum packaging as this activates the spores and reduces the time to spoilage.
    • Control of escherichia coli 0157:H7 in beefburgers

      Bolton, Declan; Byrne, Catriona; Catarame, Terese; Sheridan, James J. (Teagasc, 2001-04)
      The inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 by heating, freezing, pulsed electric field, sodium lactate, lactic acid and citric acid, alone or in combination was investigated. The industrial process for beefburger manufacture did not significantly reduce E.coli O157:H7 numbers regardless of the burger recipe and method of tempering used. Fast freezing of the burgers (to -18°C in 30 minutes as opposed to 36 hours), pulsed electric field, sodium lactate, lactic acid and citric acid, individually and in combination, did not significantly reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers when applied at different stages throughout the beef burger manufacturing process. Beefburger safety is therefore reliant on proper storage, handling and thermal processing in the domestic or catering kitchen. The lethal effect of thermal processing may be enhanced by the addition of sodium lactate to the burger during mixing. These results are presented and discussed.
    • Current food safety priorities : report on the European Union risk analysis information network (EU - RAIN)

      Maunsell, Bláithín; Bolton, Declan; Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 2006-04)
      An estimated 10 to 30% of the population in industrialised countries suffers food-borne illness annually, resulting in an unacceptable social (human suffering) and economic (health care and lost working days) cost. Risk analysis, a proactive preventative approach to food safety, was the focus of the European Union Risk Analysis Information Network (EU-RAIN) concerted action project. Funded by the European Commission, this project commenced in March 2003 and concluded in February 2006.
    • The Development and/or Validation of Novel Intervention Technologies to Assure Meat Food Safety

      Bolton, Declan; Byrne, Brian; Lyng, James G.; Downey, Gerard; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Teagasc, 01/02/2007)
      This project was undertaken to fill some of the knowledge gaps in meat food safety from farm to fork. The data provide the scientific basis for a clean sheep policy to reduce the impact of fleece as a source of microbial contamination on ovine carcasses at the beginning of the slaughter process. At the other end of the slaughter-line, a polyurethane sponge swabbing technology was developed for ovine and bovine carcass sampling as required in 2001/471/EC and the new European Commission Hygiene Regulations. At the processing stages, studies were undertaken to determine the most effective media for the recovery and culture of Cl. perfringens cells and spores; the results were then applied to thermal inactivation studies on these bacteria. Thermal resistance data were also obtained for Bacillus cereus and a radio frequency cook for meat products was validated in terms of the destruction of Cl. perfringens and B. cereus cells and spores. Finally, an aerobiology study investigated the effectiveness of a range on measures to prevent air acting as a vector for bacterial dispersion in a meat processing plant.
    • The development and/or validation of novel intervention technologies to assure meat food safety

      Bolton, Declan; Byrne, Brian; Lyng, James G. (Teagasc, 2007-02)
      This project was undertaken to fill some of the knowledge gaps in meat food safety from farm to fork. The data provide the scientific basis for a clean sheep policy to reduce the impact of fleece as a source of microbial contamination on ovine carcasses at the beginning of the slaughter process. At the other end of the slaughter-line, a polyurethane sponge swabbing technology was developed for ovine and bovine carcass sampling as required in 2001/471/EC and the new European Commission Hygiene Regulations. At the processing stages, studies were undertaken to determine the most effective media for the recovery and culture of Cl. perfringens cells and spores; the results were then applied to thermal inactivation studies on these bacteria. Thermal resistance data were also obtained for Bacillus cereus and a radio frequency cook for meat products was validated in terms of the destruction of Cl. perfringens and B. cereus cells and spores. Finally, an aerobiology study investigated the effectiveness of a range on measures to prevent air acting as a vector for bacterial dispersion in a meat processing plant.
    • Escherichia coli 0157:H7: implications for HACCP on the farm and in the abattoir

      Bolton, Declan; Byrne, Catriona; Sheridan, James J.; Riordan, Denise C.; European Union (Teagasc, 1999-01)
      Experiments were designed to assess the risks associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the farm, through the abattoir and into the butcher shop. Data was also generated for application in model building and the reliability of pathogen models for predicting pathogen growth in different foods was examined.
    • HACCP for Irish beef, pork and lamb slaughter

      Bolton, Declan; Sheridan, James J.; US-Ireland Co-operation Programme in Agriculture Science and Technology; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Teagasc, 2002-02)
      It is generally accepted that HACCP principles should be incorporated into the food safety control systems in meat processing plants to better assure food safety. The objective of this project was to publish detailed HACCP slaughter documents for the Irish beef, pork and lamb processing industries. These would provide the necessary information and detail to facilitate the implementation of HACCP on the slaughter floor (from lairage to chilling) in Irish meat plants. To this end `HACCP for Irish Beef Slaughter' was published in October 2000, `HACCP for Irish Pork Slaughter' in December 2001 and `HACCP for Irish Lamb Slaughter' will be available early in 2002. These are non-generic, detailed documents which provide the scientific basis for establishing critical control points (CCP), critical limits, monitoring and corrective action procedures.
    • Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and hygiene control auditing in Irish beef abattoirs

      Bolton, Declan; Pearce, Rachel; Tergny, Annabel; Howlett, Brendan (Teagasc, 2007-06)
      This project validated two innovative technologies for use in improving the safety of Irish beef. Online monitoring was developed and successfully tested as a tool for controlling faecal contamination on beef carcasses with the resultant reduction in microbial counts. A novel anti-microbial, LactiSAL®, was also tested and validated for use in the beef industry. Sponge swabbing using a polyurethane sponge was developed and validated for use in carcass testing as required in European Commission Decision 2001/471/EC. The costs of developing and implementing a HACCP system in Irish beef slaughter plants were assessed. Furthermore, a guide to relevant food safety legislation, including the development and auditing of HACCP and prerequisites for beef slaughter (in compliance with 2001/471/EC and the European Commission Hygiene Regulations), was developed and published.
    • Irish domestic food safety knowledge, practice and microbiology with particular emphasis on staphylococcus aureus

      Bolton, Declan; Kennedy, Jean; Cowan, Cathal (Teagasc, 2005-06)
      This study examined consumer food safety knowledge on the island of Ireland. Domestic refrigerators were tested for the presence of a range of pathogenic bacteria. The effect of refrigerated storage on the antibiotic resistance and thermal resistance of S . aureus were also investigated. Irish consumers displayed a considerable lack of knowledge about correct refrigeration temperatures and proper hygiene procedures to prevent crosscontamination in the kitchen. Domestic refrigerators were contaminated with a range of bacterial pathogens including S . aureus (41%), S almonella spp. (7%), E scherichia. coli (6%), L isteria monocytogenes (6%) and Y ersinia enterocolitica (2%). Viewing Options
    • The microbiological safety and quality of foods processed by the "sous vide" system as a method of commercial catering

      Bolton, Declan; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Teagasc, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4, 1998-08)
      The objective of this project was to improve the quality and safety of sous vide foods by investigating the responses of the food-poisoning microorganisms to the processing and storage conditions used in this technology. The major food poisoning bacteria of concern in sous vide foods are strains of Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC), Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica.
    • A risk assessment and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) study for the Irish catering industry

      Bolton, Declan; Meally, Aisling; Downey, Gerard; Safefood (Teagasc, 2007-02)
      This report provides details of a food safety knowledge survey, a microbiological survey, a chilled temperature survey and an audit conducted in 200 restaurants throughout the island of Ireland. The results suggest a low incidence of several bacterial pathogens (including Salmonella enterica) and identify areas in which food safety knowledge, procedures and practices should be improved. Salmonella enterica isolates were characterised and the results suggested distinct pockets of different serotypes. Growth curves for L. monocytogenes isolates suggest considerably reduced shelf-life for a variety of foods. For example, lettuce should not be stored at room temperature or the shelf-life is reduced from 6.5 days (chilled storage) to 3.3 days.The predicted shelf-life for fresh milk was 4.5 days (chilled storage). Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite, 5 ppm), 1-monolauroyl-rac-glycerol and a laurate ester (ester-glucoside laurate) were also tested for application as vegetable decontaminating agents in restaurant kitchens. The report concludes with recommendations for improved food safety and hygiene in Irish restaurants.
    • A Risk Assessment and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Study for the Irish Catering Industry

      Bolton, Declan; Meally, Aisling; Downey, Gerard; Safefood (Teagasc, 01/02/2007)
      This report provides details of a food safety knowledge survey, a microbiological survey, a chilled temperature survey and an audit conducted in 200 restaurants throughout the island of Ireland. The results suggest a low incidence of several bacterial pathogens (including Salmonella enterica) and identify areas in which food safety knowledge, procedures and practices should be improved. Salmonella enterica isolates were characterised and the results suggested distinct pockets of different serotypes. Growth curves for L. monocytogenes isolates suggest considerably reduced shelf-life for a variety of foods. For example, lettuce should not be stored at room temperature or the shelf-life is reduced from 6.5 days (chilled storage) to 3.3 days.The predicted shelf-life for fresh milk was 4.5 days (chilled storage). Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite, 5 ppm), 1-monolauroyl-rac-glycerol and a laurate ester (ester-glucoside laurate) were also tested for application as vegetable decontaminating agents in restaurant kitchens. The report concludes with recommendations for improved food safety and hygiene in Irish restaurants.
    • Risk-based determination of critical control points for pork slaughter

      Bolton, Declan; Pearce, Rachel; Sheridan, James J.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Teagasc, 2002-05)
      To identify the critical control points (CCPs) during commercial pork slaughter, 60 pigs in a small abattoir (80 pigs per day) and a similar number in a larger plant (2000 pigs per day) and/or their resultant carcasses were swabbed at the ham, belly and neck. The total bacterial contamination was determined after each stage from the live pigs on the farm to chilling of the carcasses in the abattoir.