• Functional ingredients as fat replacers in cakes and pastries

      Dwyer, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Eimear (Teagasc, 2001-05)
      For specific health concerns, consumers want fat taken out of food without the flavour and texture being adversely affected. Novel ingredients were investigated for use in the formulation of reduced fat bakery products. Formulations were developed for reduced fat muffins, madeira cake and shortcrust pastry by replacing some of the fat in the recipes with combinations of novel ingredients. The aim was to achieve at least a 25% fat reduction in the products while maintaining quality, texture, taste and consumer acceptability. Focus groups were used to ascertain consumers’ preferences for the reduced fat bakery products to determine which, if any, recipes had greatest potential for further development.
    • Wheat flour properties and end product quality

      Dwyer, Elizabeth; O'Halloran, Grainne R.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Teagasc, 1999-01)
      For pizza production, the flour quality values identified for the wheat cultivars, Promessa, Quintus (spring), and Soissons (winter) should be used as guidelines in selecting new cultivars and in the development of flour specifications. Similarly for biscuit production, compositional and rheological data for the cultivars, Riband,Woodstock (soft-milling) and Brigadier (hardmilling) should be used for identifying biscuit flours. The rheological properties of dough (as measured by the alveograph, extensograph and farinograph) did not relate to the baking quality for some wheat cultivars. However the rheological properties of the gel protein prepared from these flours explained their baking quality. The very high elastic moduli of these gels explained the basis of shrinkage of pizza bases produced from Baldus and Lavett flours and biscuits produced from Ritmo flour.