• Adding value to milk by increasing its protein and CLA contents.

      Murphy, J.J.; STANTON, CATHERINE; O'Donovan, Michael; Kavanagh, S.; Maher, J.; Patton, Joe; Mohammed, Riaz (Teagasc, 2008-08-01)
      Five experiments were undertaken in this project; one on mid-summer milk protein and four on milk CLA content. Thus the two main objectives of this project were to determine the factors associated with milk protein concentration in mid-summer and to investigate potential further strategies to increase the CLA content of pasture produced milk.
    • Application of Probiotic Bacteria to Functional Foods

      STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Collins, K.; McBrearty, S.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Desmond, C.; Kelly, J.; Bouchier, Paul J.; Lawless, Fergal; et al. (Teagasc, 2001-05-01)
      Probiotic cultures are described as live microbial feed supplements that improve intestinal microbial balance and are intended for maintenance of health or prevention, rather than the curing of disease. The demand for probiotic foods is increasing in Europe, Japan and the U.S. reflecting the heightened awareness among the public of the relationship between diet and health. Traditionally, the most popular food delivery systems for these cultures have been freshly fermented dairy foods, such as yogurts and fermented milks, as well as unfermented milks with cultures added. However, in the development of functional foods, the technological suitability of probiotic strains poses a serious challenge since their survival and viability may be adversely affected by processing conditions as well as by the product environment and storage conditions. This is a particular concern, given that high levels (at least 107 per gram or ml) of live micro-organisms are recommended for probiotic products. In previous studies (see DPRC No. 29) the successful manufacture of probiotic Cheddar cheese harbouring high levels (>108 cfu/g) of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 strain was reported. Hence, the overall objective of these studies was to continue the development and evaluation of Functional Foods containing high levels of viable probiotic bacteria, with particular emphasis on overcoming the technological barriers and the identification of strains suited to particular applications, such as incorporation into Cheddar cheese and spray-dried powders.
    • Dairy Ingredients for the Baking Industry.

      Keogh, M.K.; Neville, Denis P.; STANTON, CATHERINE; Auty, Mark; Kennedy, R.; Arendt, Elke (Teagasc, 2001-08-01)
      Shortenings (baking fats), microencapsulated using dairy ingredients and milk protein hydrolysates, were produced for testing in a variety of baked products. The powders were evaluated for their functionality as powdered baking fats, as potential replacers of synthetic emulsifiers, as ingredients capable of improving baking performance or as potential health-enhancing ingredients. These studies provide the technology for the dairy industry to enter the specialised food ingredients sector with a siftable, non-greasy, free-flowing powdered fat for the baking industry.
    • Development of Technologies for Separation and Functional Improvement of Individual Milk Protein Fractions

      STANTON, CATHERINE; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Donnelly, W.J.; O'Connor, Paula M. (Teagasc, 1999-02-01)
      Milk proteins can be hydrolysed (i.e. fragmented) using proteolytic enzymes to give enhanced functional and nutritional properties. There is an increasing demand for hydrolysed protein ingredients with specific properties for nutrition of individuals with specialised dietary requirements including infants, the critically ill, the immuno-compromised and athletes. Such hydrolysed proteins can be specifically designed to provide distinctive tailor-made solutions to meet customer needs in these areas. This project explored the technologies for the production of two types of hydrolysates i.e. acid-soluble and glutamine-rich. Acid-soluble protein hydrolysates have potential in the fortification of acidic beverages, including soft drinks. Glutamine-rich hydrolysates are suggested as an optimal glutamine source for administration during periods of stress, such as recovery from strenuous exercise, or from surgery. Casein was selected as the protein for development of acid-soluble product and cereal protein for the glutamine-rich product. The main conclusions were as follows: A number of protein hydrolysate products with value added properties and the processes required for their manufacture have been developed and are available for uptake by the food industry. Laboratory investigations identified conditions for the generation of two casein hydrolysates with desirable functional properties. Scale-up conditions for the manufacture of these hydrolysates in the pilot plant were successfully developed. Both hydrolystates were 100% soluble at pH 4.6, exhibited clarity in solution at low pH in clear soft drinks and in caramelised beverages and were stable in solution over a wide temperature range (from 4 to 30ºC) for extended periods. Solutions containing these hydrolysates exhibited no foaming properties and had acceptable sensory properties, being considered as weakly bitter compared to unsupplemented solutions. These performance characteristics make the acid-soluble hydrolysates useful supplements for caramelised beverages, such as colas, and clear soft drinks. Six glutamine-enriched peptide products were produced at laboratory scale using two commercially available enzyme preparations. These products had desirable characteristics such as increased levels of peptide bound glutamine, low free amino acid and free pyroglutamate levels. Pilot plant processes were developed for manufacture of the two glutamine-rich hydrolysates with most suitable compositional properties and these were fully characterised chemically. The manufacturing process was modified to enable industrial scale batches (5,000 litres) to be produced.
    • Functional Foods in Relation to Health and Disease (New Probiotic Cheddar Cheese).

      STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Collins, K.; Gardiner, Gillian E. (Teagasc, 2000-09-01)
      Growing public awareness of diet-related health benefits has fuelled the demand for probiotic foods. These foods contain probiotic bacteria which are described as live microbial supplements that improve the intestinal microbial balance and are intended for maintenance of health and/or the prevention of disease. Probiotic bacteria for human use must be proven to be safe and beneficial, and should preferably be of human origin as evidence suggests that these bacteria are species specific and perform best in the species from which they were isolated. They must also retain both viability and efficacy in a particular food product throughout its shelf-life, and following consumption. Above all however, probiotic food products must be proved effective in controlled validated clinical trials. Dairy foods, including in particular, fermented milks and yogurt are among the best accepted food carriers for probiotic cultures. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic foods, particularly, the production of high quality Cheddar cheese containing high levels of probiotic bacteria.
    • Nutrition: Nutritional Attributes of Animal and Milk Fat (CLA).

      STANTON, CATHERINE; Lawless, Fergal; Murphy, John; Aherne, Seamus; Devery, Rosaleen; O'Shea, Marianne (Teagasc, 2000-09-01)
      In the recent past, there has been considerable interest in the potential health-promoting properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid produced naturally in ruminant animals. CLA has been shown to be a very effective anti-cancer agent in animal models and cell culture studies, as well as being capable of retarding the initiation and progression of heart disease (atherosclerosis). It has also been shown to have potential as a growth promoter and is capable of improving feed efficiency. Hence from a human health viewpoint, it appears desirable to increase CLA levels in foods to protect against disease and enhance general health and well-being. The primary sources of CLA are animal fats (including dairy fats) derived from ruminant animals while vegetable fats and oils contain significantly lower levels. This project was aimed at enriching the CLA content of dairy foods through animal dietary manipulation, and milk fat fractionation.