• Development and Evaluation of Caseins/Caseinates for use as Ingredients in Food Products

      Mehra, Raj; Walsh, Daniel; O'Kennedy, Brendan; Kelly, Philip (Teagasc, 1998-09-01)
      The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effects of key processing steps in the industrial production of acid casein on the characteristics and functionality of sodium caseinate with particular emphasis on analytical/functionality testing and seasonal/lactational effects on the original milk. The main conclusions were as follows: The most significant result indicates that drying and concentration after washing of the acid casein curd are responsible for alterations in the structure of casein, which result in sodium caseinates with different properties. This was confirmed in the case of two acid casein plants investigated which showed similar results even though using different washing and drying technologies. This difference due to the drying step may be further amplified depending upon whether commercial sodium caseinate is manufactured from acid casein in the dried or wet curd state. The analytical and functional testing methodology adapted in our laboratory proved effective in predicting the effects of processing steps on the functionality of sodium caseinate. In particular, the ability to detect the presence of aggregate formation was particularly important. The database generated subsequently helped an acid casein manufacturer in modifying its process(es) to manufacture experimental sodium caseinate for specific food end-uses. Progress was greatly facilitated by the collaboration of individual manufacturers in the sourcing of problem samples from previously manufactured codes, and facilitating access to process plant during production. In a commercial application of the database, confidential work was undertaken on behalf of a client. Experimentally-produced sodium caseinate ingredients were evaluated using our adapted functionality testing methods and based on the results, the company was able to modify its process(es) to produce sodium caseinates with functionality for specific food end-users. It was concluded that while processing parameters in the production of acid casein can have a significant effect on the functional behaviour of the resultant sodium caseinate, the ability to assess this change in functional behaviour, through relevant functional testing, was equally important.
    • Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins - Relevance to Milk Composition and Cheese Production.

      Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Walsh, Daniel; Guinee, Timothy P.; Murphy, J.J.; Mehra, Raj; Harrington, D.; Connolly, J.F. (Teagasc, 1999-07-01)
      Objectives: (i) to develop rapid screening procedures for the determination of milk protein polymorphism (genetic variants) (ii) to determine the frequency distribution of milk protein genetic variants in a large population of Irish Holstein-Friesians and to determine if there was an association between κ-casein variant and milk yield and composition in this group of animals, and (iii) to make Cheddar and low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese from different κ-casein genetic variant milks and to assess any effect on cheese yield, composition and functional characteristics. Conclusions:Analysis of 6,007 individual Irish Holstein-Friesian milks showed that the phenotype distribution of the κ-casein BB variant was very low at 1.98% compared to 53.07% for κ-casein AA and 44.95% for κ-casein AB. While no statistically significant associations were observed between κ-casein variant and milk yield and composition, κ-casein BB variant milks had superior rennet coagulation properties to that of the AA or AB variants. Generally, κ-casein variant had little effect on compositional attributes of cheese apart from FDM (fat in dry matter) which was significantly higher in cheeses from κ-casein BB milk than in those from κ-casein AA milk. Generally, κ-casein variant had no significant effects on either primary or secondary proteolysis, or on the sensory and/or textural characteristics of Cheddar or Mozzarella cheese throughout ripening; or on the functional characteristics (e.g. flow and stretch) of baked Mozzarella on storage for 90 days at 4°C. However, κ-casein BB variant milk gave significantly higher actual, and moisture adjusted yields of Cheddar and Mozzarella cheese than either κ-casein AB or AA variant milks. For example, the moisture adjusted Cheddar yield from κ-casein BB milk was 8.2% higher than from κ-casein AA milk. In the case of Mozzarella, the moisture adjusted yield was 12% higher. Based on the results, it is estimated that the actual yield of cheese in a plant producing 20,000 tonnes per year from κ-casein AA milk would increase to approximately 21,180 tonnes of Cheddar, or 21,780 tonnes of Mozzarella if made from κ-casein BB milk. Where κ-casein AB milk is used instead of κ-casein BB milk, the estimated yield of Mozzarella would increase to 21,580 tonnes.