• Second Generation GM Foods: Perspectives on Likely Future Acceptance by Irish Consumers

      O'Connor, Elaine; Cowan, Cathal; Williams, Gwilym; O'Connell, John J.; Boland, Maurice; Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 01/07/2005)
      Two hypothetical second-generation genetically-modified (GM) products, a yogurt and a dairy spread, were evaluated by consumers. Second-generation GM food products offer specific consumer benefits - in the case of this study, health benefits.
    • The Socio-economic Sustainability of Rural Areas in Ireland

      Leavy, Anthony (Teagasc, 2001-04-01)
      Over the period 1971 to 1996 District Electoral Divisions (DEDs) with the highest rate of decline in population and employment tended to be most widespread in western and north-western counties.In these DEDs average population declined by 19 per cent and average employment by 24 per cent. • Average population increased by 65 per cent and employment increased by 77 per cent in DEDs close to large urban centres.Ap proximately 90 per cent of the increase in both population and employment occurred in these areas. • Leitrim (73 per cent) and Cavan (67 per cent) had the highest proportion of District Electoral Divisions (DEDs) that lost both population and employment in the 1971-1996 period.The counties of Kildare (7 per cent) and Wexford (11 per cent) had the lowest proportion of DEDs losing both population and employment. • Approximately half of DEDs in the Objective 1 region (west, midlands and border region) lost both population and employment in the 1971-96 period. • In the most recent five year inter-census period (1991-96), while population declined in 60 per cent of DEDs, only 20 per cent of DEDs lost employment. However, 100 per cent of population growth and 90 per cent of employment growth occurred in peri-urban areas in the 1991-96 period. • Areas with the most serious history of decline were classified into: (a) Farm Dependent situated in all areas of the country but remote from urban areas, (b) Low Density populated areas situated mainly in inland areas of the west and north-west, and (c) Peripheral areas situated mainly in the coastal regions of the west and north-west. • Optimum use of resources (principally land and labour) in areas with a history of long term decline could result in increases in gross revenue of 25 to 45 per cent.T he principal changes in resource use involve increases in off farm employment opportunities, participation by farmers in extensification and REPS programmes and the reallocation of land classified as rough grazing to forestry. • The challenge facing the various agencies involved in rural development is to ensure that development is widely spread to areas that have formerly suffered considerable decline.
    • A spatial analysis of agriculture in the Republic of Ireland, 1991 to 2000

      Crowley, Caroline; Meredith, David; Walsh, Jim A. (Teagasc, 01/01/2007)
      By linking farm census and administrative data from the CSO and DAF to a geographic information system and analysing the mapping output, this project shows the continued broad division of farming in the state into marginal farming areas in the north and west and more commercial farming areas in the south and east. While this division was compounded by the 1992 CAP reforms, and commercial farming became more spatially concentrated over the 1990s, the influence of the development in the non-farm economy, particularly in peri-urban rural areas across the state, provided local drivers of change that encouraged enterprise substitution to beef production, the farming system most readily combined by farm holders with another job. A full report on the mapping output will be produced in a forthcoming publication (see publications list).
    • Spatial Modelling for Rural Policy Analysis

      Hynes, Stephen (Teagasc, 2006-01-01)
      The objective of the project was to provide the diverse group of interest groups associated with the agri-food sector (farmers, policy makers etc.) with a microsimulation tool for the analysis of the relationships among regions and localities. This tool would also be able to project the spatial implications of economic development and policy change in rural areas. To this end the SMILE (Simulation Model for the Irish Local Economy) model was developed. SMILE is a static and dynamic spatial microsimulation model designed to analyse the impact of policy change and economic development on rural areas in Ireland. The model developed provides projection for population growth, spatial information on incomes and models farm activity at the electoral division (ED) level. The sub-projects funded under this project were concerned with the simulation, development and enhancement of a spatial econometric model of the Irish rural economy which would compliment the existing econometric models used in Teagasc; focusing on the agriculture and food sectors, previously constructed under the auspices of the FAPRI-Ireland Partnership by staff at Teagasc and NUI Maynooth. That partnership has produced an econometric model of the entire agri-food sector that has been simulated to produce estimates of the impact of policy changes on commodity prices, agricultural sector variables, food industry production, consumption of food both in Ireland and the EU and trade in food products, as well as costs, revenue and income of the agricultural sector. The SMILE model was built to compliment these other econometric models by using an holistic modeling approach that takes into account the spatial difference of rural populations, rural labour force and rural income.
    • The Strategic Development of Irish Livestock Marts.

      Hennebry, T.; Pitts, Eamonn; Harte, Laurence (Teagasc, 2002-09-01)
      A study of co-operative livestock marts revealed that cumulative marts turnover decreased by 26% from 1990 to 1999: Commission income as a percentage of turnover increased from 2% in 1990 to 3.2% in 1999. However operating expenses increased by 25% from 1990 to 1999. Operating expenses have since 1997, surpassed commision income, thus putting co-op marts in a collective loss making situation from their mart activities. However overall profit from co-op mart societies (including profit generated from all business activities) almost doubled between 1990 and 1999. While overall profitability of livestock marts societies has increased, twelve of thirty nine marts were in a loss making situation in 1999. Four of these marts have been in a permanent loss - making situation since 1990. All loss making societies in 1999 have little or no involvement in non-mart activities and almost all operate from just one site. In general, the large diversified societies are showing profitability. A number of strategic alternatives to deal with their situation were placed before mart executives. A diversification strategy is by far the most likely strategy to be adopted by marts for the future Most marts are unlikely to consider merging with other societies. Most marts have no plans to downsize and exit from the industry is not considered an option by any society. There is a recognition that there is an urgent need to rationalise the industry, but this strategy is likely to meet with a strong resistance from marts . A problem with rationalisation is that there are no incentives to make this strategy a reality. On the one hand, management would be reluctant to follow this approach, as it may be perceived to reflect badly on their own performance or may result in them being forced to seek alternative employment. On the other hand, the shareholders have little to gain and much to lose if the mart closes. Projections of past trends and impact of new policies would suggest continuing decline in turnover and profitability in the co-operative mart sector. Rationalisation is therefore absolutely essential. The industry cannot sustain the present number of marts. Diversification seems the most obvious option for the future of the industry. In general marts that have diversified are profitable and there is no reason why this trend cannot continue into the future.
    • Study on the Functioning of Land Markets in the EU Member states under the Influence of Measures applied under the Common Agricultural Policy

      Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin; Hennessy, Thia (Teagasc, 21/07/2008)
      Study on the Functioning of Land Markets in the EU Member states under the Influence of Measures applied under the Common Agricultural Policy
    • Supply Chains Linking Food SMEs in Lagging Rural Regions in Ireland

      Henchion, Maeve; McIntyre, Bridin; Meredith, David; Downey, Gerard; European Commission; QLK5-CT-2000-00841 (Teagasc, 01/04/2005)
      This report reflects the Irish contribution to a 3-year EU-funded research project, SUPPLIERS, which was concerned with the development, innovation, competitiveness and sustainability of food SMEs in lagging rural regions(LRRs) of the EU and Poland. It summarises the results of the research conducted in Ireland, evaluates these findings and makes recommendations to benefit food SMEs located in Ireland’s LRRs. Two regions were selected for study in Ireland. These were the West, comprising counties Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, and the Northwest, comprising counties Donegal, Sligo and Leitrim. Both are classified as Objective 1 regions reflecting their predominantly rural character, economic disadvantage and relative remoteness from urban centres. Three food products were selected for detailed study in each region. Products selected in the West were mushrooms, farmed salmon and speciality foods and, in the Northwest, organic produce, farmed shellfish and prepared consumer foods. This product range encompassed a range of chains from local to international, integrated to fragmented, direct to indirect, providing a basis for comparison and evaluation of different chain structures. This summary report concentrates on the results of four surveys carried out over the course of the study. Producers, intermediaries, commercial customers and support institutions were surveyed.
    • WEMAC Project

      Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin; European Commission (Teagasc, 01/01/2009)
      The WEMAC (World Econometric Model of Agricultural Crops) model is a model which has its origins at the French Research Institute INRA. Over the period 2006 to 2009 INRA, Teagasc and other partners worked on further developing the model as part of an EU Framework Project. This report details some of the project main results.