Now showing items 1-20 of 2799

    • Delivery of Curcumin Using Skim Milk or Oil in Water Emulsions: Effect of the Matrices on Cellular Uptake

      Guri, Anilda; Gülseren, İbrahim; Arranz, Elena; Corredig, Milena (Japan Oil Chemists' Society, 2018)
      To enhance the curcumin delivery in a variety of food grade matrices namely spray dried ethanolic curcumin in fresh skim milk (Spray dried Cu-SM), a fresh mixture of ethanolic curcumin and skim milk (Fresh Cu-SM) a powder mixture of curcumin and skim milk powder (Powder Cu-SMP) and oil in water emulsion (Emulsion) were studied. The cellular uptake of curcumin from the respective matrices was studied on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Spray dried Cu-SM showed higher encapsulation efficiency compared to a corresponding Powder Cu-SMP and an oil-in-water emulsion (40% oil) bearing curcumin. Furthermore, ethanolic administration of curcumin in spray dried form enhanced the cellular uptake of curcumin considerably higher than non-ethanolic samples (approx. 4 times). Overall, milk protein based vectors were found to perform better than emulsion samples. These findings highlighted the fact that curcumin uptake may be tailored by fine tuning of curcumin delivery vehicles which highlights possible application of powders as functional foods.
    • Novel Beverages of Yerba-Mate and Soy: Bioactive Compounds and Functional Properties

      Frizon, Cátia; Perussello, Camila; Sturion, José; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary; CAPES Brazil (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel); Embrapa-Florestas (Colombo, PR, Brazil) (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018-03-06)
      In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this paper was to assess the psychochemical characteristics of two yerba-mate progenies (planted–PL and native–NT leaves) and then confirm whether the functional and nutritional properties of the main ingredients were conveyed to the beverage produced. The main raw material, yerba-mate leaves, and the drinks were assessed for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, physicochemical properties, and nutritional value. Planted leaves showed higher concentration of 5-CQA, caffeic acid and rutin than the native plant, whereas caffeine and theobromine were detected in larger amounts in native leaves. The nutritional profile of the drinks was compared to commercial beverages–either yerba-mate-based or soy-based. They indeed provide more protein, fiber, and fats than traditional yerba-mate beverages (chimarrão, tererê, and mate tea). Soy drinks currently marketed, for their turn, have similar caloric value and higher contents of lipid and protein as compared to our product, but are poor in fibers. NT drink (DPPH—IC50 92.83 and ABTS—8.18 μM Trolox/mL) had higher antioxidant activity than PL (IC50 147.06 and 5.63 μM Trolox/mL) due to the greater volume fraction of yerba-mate extract. NT beverage has more 5-CQA and caffeine in the same intake of tererê and traditional mate tea. This healthy beverage contributes to an increasing income to the food industry and yerba-mate producers, and environmental gains that are related to the exploration of natural resources.
    • Growth under cold conditions in a wide perennial ryegrass panel is under tight physiological control

      Förster, Lena; Grant, Jim; Michel, Thibauld; Ng, Carl; Barth, Susanne; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14/S/81 (PeerJ, 2018-07-17)
      Background. Perennial ryegrass is a cool-season grass species from the family Poaceae and is widely cultivated in temperate regions because it exhibits rapid growth and establishment, and possesses high forage quality. The extension of the growing season in Ireland in spring and autumn is a breeding target to make farming more profitable since a grass-fed diet based on grazing is the cheapest way of nutrition for ruminants. Methods. Fifty-seven perennial ryegrass accessions were screened for their ability to grow under typical Irish spring conditions as taken from long term temperature records in controlled climate chambers. They were grown in low temperature (8 ◦C/2 ◦C day/night) and control conditions (15 ◦C/8 ◦C day/night) in three consecutive independent experiments. Fresh weight, height, chlorophyll content and electrolyte leakage were measured, and these parameters were used to rank plant performance under low temperature growth conditions. Results. The results showed that height, yield and electrolyte leakage are excellent measures for the impact of cold stress tolerance. Little variation in growth was seen under cold stress, but a wide variety of responses were observed under control conditions. Discussion. Our results suggest that cold stress is under tight physiological control. Interestingly, the various genotypes responded differentially to more amenable control conditions, indicating that a quick response to more amenable growth conditions is a better target for breeding programmes.
    • DairyWater: striving for sustainability within the dairy processing industry in the Republic of Ireland

      Finnegan, William; Clifford, Eoghan; Goggins, Jamie; O'Leary, Niall; Dobson, Alan; Rowan, Neil; Xiao, Liwen; Miao, Song; Fitzhenry, Kelly; Leonard, Peter; et al. (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2018-08-08)
      This Review describes the objectives and methodology of the DairyWater project as it aims to aid the Irish dairy processing industry in achieving sustainability as it expands. With the abolition of European milk quotas in March 2015, the Republic of Ireland saw a surge in milk production. The DairyWater project was established in anticipation of this expansion of the Irish dairy sector in order to develop innovative solutions for the efficient management of water consumption, wastewater treatment and the resulting energy use within the country's dairy processing industry. Therefore, the project can be divided into three main thematic areas: dairy wastewater treatment technologies and microbial analysis, water re-use and rainwater harvesting and environmental assessment. In order to ensure the project remains as relevant as possible to the industry, a project advisory board containing key industry stakeholders has been established. To date, a number of large scale studies, using data obtained directly from the Irish dairy industry, have been performed. Additionally, pilot-scale wastewater treatment (intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor) and tertiary treatment (flow-through pulsed ultraviolet system) technologies have been demonstrated within the project. Further details on selected aspects of the project are discussed in greater detail in the subsequent cluster of research communications.
    • Removal of sialic acid from bull sperm decreases motility and mucus penetration ability but increases zona pellucida binding and polyspermic penetration in vitro

      Fernandez-Fuertes, B; Blanco-Fernandez, A; Reid, C J; Meade, K G; Fair, S; Lonergan, P; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/S/104 (Bioscientifica, 2018-06)
      This study tested the hypothesis that sperm sialic acid (Sia) is required to reach the site of fertilization, and that successful fertilization requires recognition of Sia from both the sperm and oocyte to occur. In addition, it has recently been reported that Siglecs (Sia-binding-immunoglobulin-like lectins) are present on the sperm surface. Thus, the possibility that the recognition of oocyte Sia was sperm-Siglec-mediated was also addressed. Sperm exposed to neuraminidase (NMase) exhibited lower overall and progressive motility, which translated to a decreased ability to swim through cervical mucus from cows in oestrus. In addition, when either sperm or cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with NMase, a decrease in cleavage and blastocyst rate was observed. However, incubation of sperm with increasing concentrations of anti-Siglec-2, -5, -6 and -10 antibodies prior to fertilization had no effect on their fertilizing ability. Interestingly, treatment with NMase increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP but also the rate of polyspermic fertilization. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no differences in the percentage of capacitated or acrosome-reacted sperm. These results suggest that Sia are required to reach the site of fertilization but need to be removed for sperm-oocyte interaction. However, fine regulation is needed to avoid abnormal fertilization which can lead to impaired embryo development.
    • Dairy matrix effects: response to consumption of dairy fat differs when eaten within the cheese matrix—a randomized controlled trial

      Feeney, Emma L; Barron, Rebecca; Dible, Victoria; Hamilton, Zita; Power, Yvonne; Tanner, Linda; Flynn, Cal; Bouchier, Paul; Beresford, Tom; Noronha, Nessa; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018-08-11)
      Background Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31). Group D first completed a 6-wk “run-in” period, where they excluded all dietary cheese before commencing the intervention. Results There was no difference in anthropometry, fasting glucose, or insulin between the groups at pre- or postintervention. However, a stepwise-matrix effect was observed between the groups for total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.033) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.026), with significantly lower postintervention TC (mean ± SD) (5.23 ± 0.88 mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (2.97 ± 0.67 mmol/L) when all of the fat was contained within the cheese matrix (Group A), compared with Group C when it was not (TC: 5.57 ± 0.86 mmol/L; LDL cholesterol: 3.43 ± 0.78 mmol/L). Conclusion Dairy fat, eaten in the form of cheese, appears to differently affect blood lipids compared with the same constituents eaten in different matrices, with significantly lower total cholesterol observed when all nutrients are consumed within a cheese matrix This trial was registered at ISRCTN as ISRCTN86731958.
    • The Gut Microbiota of Marine Fish

      Egerton, Sian; Cullotoy, Sarah; Whooley, Jason; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Irish Research Council (IRC); Biomarine Ingredients Ireland Ltd.; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) in Ireland; Marine Institute; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-05-18)
      The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking. We review here the factors shaping marine fish gut microbiota and highlight gaps in the research.
    • In silico Prediction and Exploration of Potential Bacteriocin Gene Clusters Within the Bacterial Genus Geobacillus

      Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul; Hill, Colin; Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; 13/F/462; 10/IN.1/B3027; SFI/12/RC/2273 (Frontiers Media SA, 2018-09-20)
      The thermophilic, endospore-forming genus of Geobacillus has historically been associated with spoilage of canned food. However, in recent years it has become the subject of much attention due its biotechnological potential in areas such as enzyme and biofuel applications. One aspect of this genus that has not been fully explored or realized is its use as a source of novel forms of the ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides known as bacteriocins. To date only two bacteriocins have been fully characterized within this genus, i.e., Geobacillin I and II, with only a small number of others partially characterized. Here we bioinformatically investigate the potential of this genus as a source of novel bacteriocins through the use of the in silico screening software BAGEL3, which scans publically available genomes for potential bacteriocin gene clusters. In this study we examined the association of bacteriocin gene presence with niche and phylogenetic position within the genus. We also identified a number of candidates from multiple bacteriocin classes which may be promising antimicrobial candidates when investigated in vitro in future studies.
    • The Lactobacillus casei Group: History and Health Related Applications

      Hill, Daragh; Sugrue, Ivan; Tobin, Conor; Hill, Colin; STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, R. Paul; Teagasc Walsh Fellowships; Science Foundation Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273 (Frontiers Media SA, 2018-09-10)
      The Lactobacillus casei group (LCG), composed of the closely related Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus are some of the most widely researched and applied probiotic species of lactobacilli. The three species have been extensively studied, classified and reclassified due to their health promoting properties. Differentiation is often difficult by conventional phenotypic and genotypic methods and therefore new methods are being continually developed to distinguish the three closely related species. The group remain of interest as probiotics, and their use is widespread in industry. Much research has focused in recent years on their application for health promotion in treatment or prevention of a number of diseases and disorders. The LCG have the potential to be used prophylactically or therapeutically in diseases associated with a disturbance to the gut microbiota. The group have been extensively researched with regard to stress responses, which are crucial for their survival and therefore application as probiotics.
    • Higher species richness enhances yield stability in intensively managed grasslands with experimental disturbance

      Haughey, Eamon; Suter, Matthias; Hofer, Daniel; Hoekstra, Nyncke J.; McElwain, Jennifer C.; Lüscher, Andreas; Finn, John A. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-10-09)
      Climate models predict increased frequency and severity of drought events. At an Irish and Swiss site, experimental summer droughts were applied over two successive years to grassland plots sown with one, two or four grassland species with contrasting functional traits. Mean yield and plot-to-plot variance of yield were measured across harvests during drought and after a subsequent post-drought recovery period. At both sites, there was a positive relationship between species richness and yield. Under rainfed control conditions, mean yields of four-species communities were 32% (Wexford, Ireland) and 51% (Zürich, Switzerland) higher than in monocultures. This positive relationship was also evident under drought, despite signifcant average yield reductions (−27% at Wexford; −21% at Zürich). Fourspecies communities had lower plot-to-plot variance of yield compared to monoculture or two-species communities under both rainfed and drought conditions, which demonstrates higher yield stability in four-species communities. At the Swiss but not the Irish site, a high degree of species asynchrony could be identifed as a mechanism underlying increased temporal stability in four-species communities. These results indicate the high potential of multi-species grasslands as an adaptation strategy against drought events and help achieve sustainable intensifcation under both unperturbed and perturbed environmental conditions.
    • Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

      Ghaley, Bhim; Rusu, Teodor; Sandén, Taru; Spiegel, Heide; Menta, Cristina; Visioli, Giovanna; O’Sullivan, Lilian; Gattin, Isabelle; Delgado, Antonio; Liebig, Mark; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018-03-13)
      Conventional farming (CONV) is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA) is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual soil functions. The objective was to compare effects of CA and CONV practices on the five soil functions in four major environmental zones (Atlantic North, Pannonian, Continental and Mediterranean North) in Europe by applying expert scoring based on synthesis of existing literature. In each environmental zone, a team of experts scored the five soil functions due to CA and CONV treatments and median scores indicated the overall effects on five soil functions. Across the environmental zones, CONV had overall negative effects on soil functions with a median score of 0.50 whereas CA had overall positive effects with median score ranging from 0.80 to 0.83. The study proposes the need for field-based investigations, policies and subsidy support to benefit from CA adoption to enhance the five soil functions.
    • Extraction and Yield Optimisation of Fucose, Glucans and Associated Antioxidant Activities from Laminaria digitata by Applying Response Surface Methodology to High Intensity Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction

      Garcia-Vaquero, Marco; Rajauria, Gaurav; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sweeney, Torres; O’Doherty, John; Science Foundation Ireland; 14/IA/2548 (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018-07-30)
      The objectives of this study were to employ response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate and optimize the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables, temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of polysaccharides (fucose and total glucans) and antioxidant activities (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH)) from Laminaria digitata, and to explore the suitability of applying the optimum UAE conditions for L. digitata to other brown macroalgae (L. hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum). The RSM with three-factor, four-level Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to study and optimize the extraction variables. A second order polynomial model fitted well to the experimental data with R2 values of 0.79, 0.66, 0.64, 0.73 for fucose, total glucans, FRAP and DPPH, respectively. The UAE parameters studied had a significant influence on the levels of fucose, FRAP and DPPH. The optimised UAE conditions (temperature = 76 °C, time = 10 min and amplitude = 100%) achieved yields of fucose (1060.7 ± 70.6 mg/100 g dried seaweed (ds)), total glucans (968.6 ± 13.3 mg/100 g ds), FRAP (8.7 ± 0.5 µM trolox/mg freeze-dried extract (fde)) and DPPH (11.0 ± 0.2%) in L. digitata. Polysaccharide rich extracts were also attained from L. hyperborea and A. nodosum with variable results when utilizing the optimum UAE conditions for L. digitata.
    • Linear type trait genetic trends in Irish Holstein-Friesian dairy animals

      Berry, D.P.; Ring, S.C.; Kelleher, M.M.; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine; 16/RC/3835 (Teagasc, 2022-11-04)
      The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic trends of 18 subjectively scored linear type traits describing animal morphology, as well as udder, teat, feet and leg conformation. The analysis was undertaken using 2,932,700 Holstein-Friesian females born in the Republic of Ireland between the years 2000 and 2020, inclusive. The results indicate that Holstein-Friesian females have progressively become shorter in stature as well as shallower (i.e. body depth) and less angular. The reduction in genetic merit for stature score since the year 2004 was, however, only observed in non-herdbook-registered heifers. Furthermore, the reducing score in body depth (i.e. narrower) and angularity (i.e. less angular) was approximately twice as fast in non-herdbook-registered heifers as it was in herdbook-registered heifers. Differences in the genetic merit of the body-related traits for calves born versus those that became cows only existed prior to 2010 with little biological differences thereafter; this observation was common across most of the linear type traits. Genetic merit for locomotion in non-herdbook-registered animals has deteriorated over the 20-yr period, while the foot angle over that period is becoming lower; no such trends were observed for the herdbook-registered animals. Large differences not only in the trends themselves, but also in the mean genetic merit for udder traits existed when comparing herdbook-registered calves versus non-registered calves. In conclusion, genetic merit for many of the traits evaluated has trended relatively consistent in a given direction, albeit the cumulative change in genetic s.d. units per traits over the 20-yr period was very small.
    • Irish cattle farmers’ experiences and perceptions of negative framing of farm animal welfare in the media

      Duley, A.; Connor, M.; Vigors, B. (Teagasc, 2022-11-04)
      RECORDABSTRACTARTICLE Irish cattle farmers’ experiences and perceptions of negative framing of farm animal welfare in the media RESEARCH-ARTICLE Author(s): A. Duley 1 , , M. Connor 1 , B. Vigors 2 Publication date (Electronic): 04 November 2022 Journal: Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research Publisher: Compuscript Keywords: Agriculture, farm animal welfare, farmer perception, media framing, rural sociology Abstract Increased urbanisation in recent decades has created a knowledge gap between farming and the Irish public. Mainstream media has begun filling this gap through reports on farm animal welfare (FAW) incidents that sometimes frame farming in a negative way. This negative framing can influence how farmers perceive the information communicated in these media stories and colour their experiences. Furthermore, perceived societal pressures may contribute to farmers feeling overwhelmed or negatively impact their mental health. In the context of FAW, the latter is particularly relevant as poor farmer mental health has been associated with poorer animal welfare. However, little is known about how the negative framing of FAW stories influence farmers’ perceptions and experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how negatively framed media stories about FAW incidents affect cattle farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with seven Irish beef and dairy farmers using vignettes displaying negatively framed FAW incidents presented in the media. Five themes were identified: (1) job satisfaction and motivation, (2) impact on the human–animal relationship, (3) the importance of community, (4) negative portrayal of farmers and (5) need for FAW education. Findings suggest that negative framing of FAW in the media, as well as rural restructuring in Ireland, may negatively affect farmers’ motivation which could have indirect implications for the welfare of their animals.
    • A short survey of key silage-making practices on Northern Ireland dairy farms, and farmer perceptions of factors influencing silage quality

      Ferris, C.P.; Laidlaw, A.S.; Wylie, A.R.G. (Teagasc, 2022-11-07)
      Northern Ireland dairy farmers (n = 174) were surveyed to identify key silage-making practices, and factors perceived to influence the quality of grass silage made on their farms. The majority of farmers (65%) harvested grass for silage three times/year: 62% normally used a contractor, while 47% routinely used a silage additive. Delays to mowing and delays to harvesting due to adverse weather or poor ground conditions were perceived to have a large or very large impact on silage quality (68% and 53% of farmers, respectively). Inadequate wilting, poor-quality swards on owned land, on rented land and “contamination” of first-cut grass with autumn or winter growth herbage were all perceived as having a large or very large impact on silage quality (32%, 27%, 40%, 30% of farmers, respectively). Over the previous decade, 11%, 41% and 37% of farmers claimed a small, moderate or large improvement in silage quality, mainly due to earlier cutting of grass and ensiling better quality swards.
    • Solutions to enteric methane abatement in Ireland

      Cummins, S.; Lanigan, G.J.; Richards, K.G.; Boland, T.M.; Kirwan, S.F.; Smith, P.E.; Waters, S.M.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Teagasc, 2022-11-10)
      The efficiency of Ireland’s grass-based livestock systems can be attributed to high outputs, low production costs and a low carbon footprint relative to housed systems. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) of which enteric fermentation from livestock production is a key source, being directly responsible for 57% of Irish agricultural GHG emissions. There are a number of strategies including dietary manipulation and breeding initiatives that have shown promising results as potential mitigation solutions for ruminant livestock production. However, the majority of international research has predominantly been conducted on confined systems. Given the economic viability of Irish livestock systems, it is vital that any mitigation methods are assessed at pasture. Such research cannot be completed without access to suitable equipment for measuring CH4 emissions at grazing. This review documents the current knowledge capacity in Ireland (publications and projects) and includes an inventory of equipment currently available to conduct research. A number of strategic research avenues are identified herein that warrant further investigation including breeding initiatives and dietary manipulation. It was notable that enteric CH4 research seems to be lacking in Ireland as it constituted 14% of Irish agricultural GHG research publications from 2016 to 2021. A number of key infrastructural deficits were identified including respiration chambers (there are none currently operational in the Republic of Ireland) and an urgent need for more pasture-based GreenFeed™ systems. These deficits will need to be addressed to enable inventory refinement, research progression and the development of effective solutions to enteric CH4 abatement in Ireland.
    • Evaluating the timing of insecticide application to manage barley yellow dwarf virus and yield in winter barley

      Walsh, L. E.; Lacey, S.; Doyle, D.; Gaffney, M. T.; Mc Namara, L.; Department of Agriculture, Fod and the MArine; 14/s/879 (Teagasc, 2022-11-30)
      Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an important viral disease of grain crops worldwide and a major cause of yield loss. The risk periods for BYDV infection coincide with milder temperature that prolongs aphid flight and facilitates viral transmission through primary and secondary aphid movement in the crop. Secondary aphid movement is associated with greater BYDV spread in winter cereals. A critical component of BYDV management is therefore delaying sowing of winter cereals and correctly timing insecticide application to maximise crop protection. Previous research in Ireland considered insecticide timing in early (September) and late (October onwards) sown cereals. Early research did not consider action thresholds around temperature, aphid flight and risk of secondary spread. This research set out to understand the optimal timing of insecticide application in October sown winter barley to reduce BYDV infection and yield impact. A critical temperature of 3°C was used as a threshold for aphid development that leads to movement and BYDV spread, and insecticide treatments were applied to the crop at predictable intervals in relation to temperature. Results show that BYDV symptoms and yield are affected by spray time, location and year, although only significant with regard to the reduction of BYDV symptoms. For both BYDV symptoms and yield, there was a significant difference between untreated (control) plots and “early” and “late” applications of insecticide, again more notable for BYDV symptoms than yield. This work indicates the value of optimising a single insecticide spray for control of October sown cereals and supports decision-making in the management of cereal crops.
    • Yield response of field beans (Vicia faba) to plant population and sowing date in a temperate climate

      Murphy, L.C.; Sparkes, D.L.; Spink, J.H.; Alves, S.; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship programme; Irish Farmers Association (Teagasc, 2022-12-23)
      Sowing date and seed rate influence crop establishment, growth, yield and profitability. The growth and yield of field beans (Vicia faba) in response to sowing date and seed rate was examined over three seasons, 2016–2019, in Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. Early winter sowings (October) established better than late winter sowings in November and January. No significant difference was found in establishment from mid-February to mid-March. Yield was generally highest from October sowings for the winter cultivar. Yields were similar from February, March and April sowings for the spring cultivar, with March generally yielding higher across the three seasons. Yield was also found to increase significantly with seed rate for both winter and spring cultivars. The economic optimum plant population was estimated for the October and March sowing dates, by fitting a standard (linear + exponential) curve. There is no published information on the optimum plant populations for field beans in Ireland and we believe we are the first to report these findings. The estimated economic optimum plant populations varied between 13 and 38 plants/m2 for both varieties, with an average optimum of 25.5 plants/m2. This range falls within the current recommendations for sowing field beans in Ireland, demonstrating that increasing plant populations above the current commercial practice for field beans in Ireland, will not increase yield or profitability.
    • A note on current pyrethroid susceptibility in the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi in Ireland

      George, A.; Meally, H.; Foster, S.; Williamson, M.; Walsh, L.; Carroll, J.; Gaffney, M.T.; McNamara, L.; South East Technological University, President’s Fellowship scheme; Teagasc (Teagasc, 2022-12-28)
      The objective of this study was to observe the response of the bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus, 1758) to field rate equivalents of insecticides, by using bioassays of vials coated with the pyrethroid, λ-cyhalothrin. The results from the geographically separated Irish R. padi colonies indicated a susceptible response, which was a similar finding to the UK which showed sensitivity in this species of cereal aphids. Monitoring the susceptibility status of aphids using bioassays gives information regarding developments of any tolerance, which could be a precursor, or resistance against the target chemical insecticide, which is an important integrated pest management tool.
    • Identification and distribution of leatherjackets (Tipula spp.) in the Republic of Ireland

      Moffat, A.; Gaffney, M. T.; Brennan, F.; Cole, L.; Jackson, G.; Konkolewska, A.; McNamara, L.; Teagasc (Teagasc, 2022-12-28)
      The soil-dwelling larval stage of crane flies, commonly known as leatherjackets, are classified as agricultural pests in Europe, and pests of turf in North America and Canada. They cause significant damage and yield loss in many cropping systems through their feeding on plant roots and stems at ground level. The effective chemical control for these pests, chlorpyrifos (available since 1965), was prohibited across Europe in 2019. This has left severely restricted control options for growers. Unlike Northern Ireland and Great Britain, no leatherjacket surveys or routine identifications have been conducted across Ireland. Therefore, the leatherjacket species of agronomic importance has not been confirmed. Since lifecycles, feeding behaviour and damage periods differ between species, identifying the most common species is a vital first step in any pest management strategy. Here we report key findings from a 2-yr structured survey of Irish crops, conducted in 2019 and 2021, where 135 sites were sampled. Both grassland and cereal crops were inspected. Soil cores and soil samples were collected and larval abundance determined. The European crane fly, Tipula paludosa Meigen, accounted for approximately 70% of larvae collected and identified (n = 337). In 2019, 40% of grasslands exceeded the threshold of 1 million larvae/ha, while only 3.3% of cereal fields were over the threshold of 600,000 larvae/ha. These results indicate that agricultural grasslands in Ireland have the potential to be significantly impacted by leatherjacket damage, although this may vary temporally and geographically across the island. Without effective control options, yield losses will be highly probable.