Now showing items 21-40 of 2476

    • Production of probiotic Bulgarian yoghurts obtained from an ultrafiltered cow’s milk

      Kodinova, S.; Dushkova, M.; Miteva-Petrova, M.; Yanakieva, V.; Petrov, S.; Denkova, Z. (Compuscript Ltd.Teagasc, 2021-03-04)
      Ultrafiltration of skim cow’s milk with a UF10-PAN membrane at volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of 2 and 3 was performed. The ultrafiltration retentates obtained were used for production of probiotic yoghurts with three different starters. A control sample was prepared using skim cow’s milk. All yoghurts were analysed according to the following parameters: titratable acidity, dry matter, organoleptic characteristics, number of specific microorganisms (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and the total count of viable lactic acid bacteria for 28 d of storage. The results showed that the increase in the VRR during ultrafiltration increased the titratable acidity, as well as the dry matter of all yoghurts. Ultrafiltration concentration led to an increase in the count of viable lactic acid bacteria in all yoghurts which improved their functional properties. The highest values of the total number of viable lactic acid bacteria were determined in yoghurts obtained with starter 1CM, followed by starters MZ2 and ZD for both VRRs. Probiotic yoghurts with the highest organoleptic evaluation were obtained from ultrafiltration retentates at VRR = 2 and starters 1CM and MZ2.
    • Performance and nutrient utilisation of dairy cows offered silages produced from three successive harvests of either a red clover–perennial ryegrass sward or a perennial ryegrass sward

      Johnston, D.J.; Laidlaw, A.S.; Theodoridou, K.; Ferris, C.P.; Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (Northern Ireland); AgriSearch (TeagascCompuscript Ltd, 2020-11-30)
      The need to reduce reliance on imported protein feeds within the UK and Ireland has stimulated interest in locally grown forage legume crops, including red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). This 13-wk study examined the performance of 28 dairy cows offered silages produced from three successive harvests (H) of either a pure grass sward (GS) receiving 315 kg N/ha per annum or a red clover–perennial ryegrass sward (RCGS) receiving 22 kg N/ha per annum. The crops of H1, H2 and H3 were wilted for 48, 72 and 72 h, respectively. Silages from H1, H2 and H3 were offered for 5, 5 and 3 wk, respectively, with cows supplemented with 8.0 kg concentrate/d throughout the experiment. Digestibility of DM and the effectively degradable protein content were lower, while protein degradability was higher, for RCGS than for GS. Silage DM intakes (DMIs) were higher for RCGS than for GS at H1 and H2, with no differences at H3. Milk yield was higher with RCGS than with GS at H3, with no differences at H1 and H2. Milk fat and milk protein contents were lower with RCGS than with GS at H3 but did not differ at H1 and H2. Faecal N/N intake was higher in the RCGS group than in the GS group at H1, with no differences at H2 and H3. Gross energy digestibility was lower for RCGS than for GS at H2. Although cow performance was higher with RCGS treatment, the responses were variable between harvests, largely reflecting the changing proportion of RC in the swards as the season progressed
    • Forecasting prices of dairy commodities – a comparison of linear and nonlinear models

      Hansen, B.G. (TeagascCompuscript Ltd, 2020-11-30)
      Dairy commodity prices have become more volatile over the last 10–11 yr. The aim of this paper was to produce reliable price forecasts for the most frequently traded dairy commodities. Altogether five linear and nonlinear time series models were applied. The analysis reveals that prices of dairy commodities reached a structural breakpoint in 2006/2007. The results also show that a combination of linear and nonlinear models is useful in forecasting commodity prices. In this study, the price of cheese is the most difficult to forecast, but a simple autoregressive (AR) model performs reasonably well after 12 mo. Similarly, for butter the AR model performs the best, while for skimmed milk powder (Smp), whole milk powder (Wmp) and whey powder (Whp) the nonlinear methods are the most accurate. However, few of the differences between models are significant according to the Diebold–Mariano (DM) test. The findings could be of interest to the whole dairy industry.
    • A pilot study of methodology for the development of farmland habitat reports for sustainability assessments

      Finn, John; Moran, P.; Bord Bia (TeagascCompuscript Ltd, 2020-11-21)
      The inclusion of farm maps of habitat features is becoming an urgent requirement for assessments of farm-scale sustainability and for compliance or benchmarking with national and international sustainability certification and accreditation schemes. Traditional methods of habitat assessment rely strongly on field-based surveys, which are logistically demanding and relatively costly. We describe and investigate a process that relies on information technology to develop a scalable method that can be applied across multiple farms to reduce the significant logistical challenges and financial costs of traditional habitat surveys. A key impediment to the routine development of farm habitat maps is the lack of information on the type of habitats that occur on a land parcel. Within a pilot project comprising 187 farms, we developed and implemented a process for creating farm habitat reports and investigate the accuracy of visual interpretation of satellite imagery by an ecologist aiming to identify habitat types. We generated customised farm reports that included a colour-coded farm habitat map and habitat information (type, area, relative wildlife importance). Visual assessment of satellite imagery achieved an overall accuracy of 96% in its ability to discriminate between land parcels with habitats categorised by this study as being of either high or low nature conservation value. Assessment of satellite imagery achieved an overall accuracy of 90% in its ability to discriminate among Fossitt level II habitat classes, and an overall accuracy of 81% when using individual habitat classes (Fossitt level III). There was, however, considerable variation in the accuracy associated with individual habitat classes. We conclude that this methodology based on satellite imagery is sufficiently accurate to be used for the incorporation of farmland habitats into farm-scale sustainability assurance, but should, at most, use Fossitt level II habitat classes. We discuss future challenges and opportunities for the development of farm habitat maps and plans for their use in sustainability certification schemes.
    • The proximate composition of three marine pelagic fish: blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), boarfish (Capros aper) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

      Egerton, S.; Mannion, D.; Culloty, S.; Whooley, J.; STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, R.P.; Irish Research Council; Biomarine Ingredients Ireland Ltd.; Science Foundation Ireland; EPSPG/2015/57; et al. (TeagascCompuscript Ltd, 2020-12-18)
      This study presents data from an in-depth proximate compositional analysis of three marine fish species: blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), boarfish (Capros aper) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). These fish contained significant amounts of protein (16–17%), lipids (4–11%) and minerals (2–6% ash). The proteins, particularly from boarfish, had close to optimum amino acid profiles for human and fish nutrition. They compared favourably with other fish species in terms of total lipids and relative concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (11.8–13.3% and 5.9–8.1% in triacylglycerols [TG] and 24.6–35.4% and 5.8–12.0% in phospholipids [PL]). Atlantic herring had the highest lipid content among the three fish and was found to contain high levels of PL poly-unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids. Minerals detected in the fish included calcium (272–1,520 mg/100 g), phosphorus (363–789 mg/100 g), iron (1.07–2.83 mg/100 g), magnesium (40.70–62.10 mg/100 g), potassium (112.00–267.00 mg/100 g), selenium (0.04–0.06 mg/100 g), sodium (218.00–282.00 mg/100 g) and zinc (1.29–5.57 mg/100 g). Boarfish had the highest ash fraction and also the highest levels of all the minerals, except potassium. Atlantic herring had considerably lower mineral content compared with the other two species and, levels detected were also lower than those reported in previously published studies. Heavy metals contents were quantified, and levels were significantly below the maximum allowable limits for all elements except arsenic, which ranged from 1.34 to 2.44 mg/kg in the three fish species. Data outlined here will be useful for guiding product development. Future studies would benefit from considering catch season, sex and developmental stage of the fish.
    • Measuring total factor productivity on Irish dairy farms: a Fisher index approach using farm-level data

      McCormack, Michele; Thorne, Fiona; Hanrahan, Kevin (Compuscript Ltd.Teagasc, 2020-11-21)
      This paper presents a Fisher index measure of the total factor productivity (TFP) performance of Irish dairy farms over the period 2006–2016 using the Teagasc National Farm Survey (NFS) data. The removal of milk quotas in 2015 has led to an increase of over 30% in dairy cow numbers since 2010, and although suckler cow numbers have dropped slightly, the total number of cows in Ireland reached an all-time high of 2.5 million head in 2016. This large increase adds to the environmental pressures attributed to agricultural output and puts the focus firmly on how efficiently the additional agricultural output associated with higher cow numbers is produced. The primary purpose of this paper is to identify a standardised measure of the TFP performance of Irish dairy farms that can be routinely updated using Teagasc NFS data. We found that relative to 2010 the TFP of Irish dairy farms has increased by almost 18%; however, in one production year 2015, when milk quota was removed, the TFP measure increased by 7% and TFP continued to grow by 2.5% in the production year 2016. It would seem therefore that the removal of the European dairy quota system has resulted in a windfall gain for Irish dairy farmers but that productivity gains are continuing. Future data will be required to investigate the longer-term TFP performance of Irish dairy farms in the post-milk quota era.
    • Pasture allowance, duration, and stage of lactation—Effects on early and total lactation animal performance

      Claffey, A.; Delaby, L.; Lewis, E.; Boland, T.M.; Kennedy, Emer; Dairy Levy (American Dairy Science Association, 2019-10)
      Pasture availability in early spring can be limited due to climatic effects on grass production, increasing the likelihood of feed deficits in early lactation of spring-calving pasture-based systems. We hypothesized that restricting pasture allowance (PA) when animals are at peak milk production will have more negative implications on milk production compared with restricting animals before this period. A total of 105 cows were assigned to 1 of 7 grazing treatments from March 14 to October 31, 2016 (33 wk). The control treatment was offered a PA to achieve a postgrazing sward height > 3.5 cm and mean pasture allowance of 15.5 kg of dry matter per cow. The remaining treatments were offered a PA representing 60% of that offered to the control for a duration of 2 or 6 wk from March 14 (mid-March; MMx2 and MMx6), March 28 (end of March; EMx2 and EMx6), or April 11 (mid-April; MAx2 and MAx6). Within grazing treatment, animals were also assigned to 1 of 2 calving dates (early and late) based on days in milk (DIM) on March 14. Early calved (EC) cows were ≥36 DIM, while late calved (LC) were ≤35 DIM. Restricting PA for 2 and 6 wk reduced daily milk yield (−1.6 and −2.2 kg/cow, respectively), cumulative milk protein yield (−4.0 and −6.3 kg/cow, respectively), and cumulative milk solids yield (−5.8 and −9.5 kg/cow, respectively) in the first 10 wk of the experiment. Daily milk yield was similar across the treatments at the end of the 33-wk period (16.8 kg/cow, average of all treatments), as was daily milk solids yield (1.40 kg/cow). Cows in the EC group produced less milk over the first 10 wk of the experiment (20.0 kg/cow per day) compared with the LC animals (22.1 kg/cow per day). However, body weight was greater (+15 kg/cow) in the EC animals compared with the LC, while body condition score was similar (2.85). This outcome indicates that animals that are restricted later in early lactation (circa onset of peak milk production) partition a greater proportion of available energy to maintenance, resulting in greater losses in milk production. These data indicate that despite the immediate reduction in milk production, restricting intake of grazing cows to 80% of that required to achieve spring grazing targets for postgrazing sward height for up to 6 wk may be used as a method of managing short-term pasture deficits on farm with minimal effects on total lactation performance.
    • Solubility of carbon dioxide in renneted casein matrices: Effect of pH, salt, temperature, partial pressure, and moisture to protein ratio

      Lamichhane, Prabin; Sharma, Prateek; Kelly, Alan L.; Risbo, Jens; Rattray, Fergal P.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland; Omua; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2020-07-25)
      The solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the moisture and protein components of cheese matrices and the influence of changing pH, salt and temperature levels remains unclear. In this study, model casein matrices were prepared, by renneting of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), with modulation of salt and pH levels by adding salt and glucono delta-lactone, respectively, to the MCC solutions prior to renneting. Different moisture-to-protein levels were achieved by freeze-drying, incubation of samples at different relative humidities, or by applying varying pressures during gel manufacture. The CO2 solubility of samples decreased linearly with both increasing temperature and salt-in-moisture content, whereas solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pH. A non-linear relationship was observed between CO2 solubility and the moisture-to-protein ratio of experimental samples. Overall, such knowledge may be applied to improve the quality and consistency of eye-type cheese, and in particular to avoid development of undesirable slits and cracks.
    • Purulent vaginal discharge diagnosed in pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows at 21 days postpartum is influenced by previous lactation milk yield and results in diminished fertility

      Ryan, Nicholas J.; Meade, Kieran G.; Williams, Erin J.; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Grant, Jim; Evans, Alexander C.O.; Beltman, Marijke E.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13/S/472 (American Dairy Science Association, 2020-01)
      In a subset of dairy cows, prolonged pathological uterine inflammation results in purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), which can have negative consequences for both fertility and milk production. However, unlike for intensive systems, analysis of the effects of PVD in predominantly pasture-based herds is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PVD in spring-calving, pasture-based dairy cows on production and reproduction indices, stratified according to previous full-lactation milk yield. We assessed clinical disease as defined by vaginal mucus score (VMS) in 440 Holstein-Friesian cows from 5 farms. Cows were categorized as healthy (VMS 0) or having PVD (VMS 1–3) at 21 d postpartum. We recorded 305-d milk, milk protein, and milk fat yields (kg) before and after disease diagnosis, as well as fertility data, such as services per conception and the calving–conception period (CCP). Using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), we analyzed data using PROC MIXED, PROC PHREG, and PROC LOGISTIC to determine the least squares means differences and hazard and odds ratios between the groups, respectively. Overall, a 60% prevalence of PVD was recorded at 21 d postpartum. Milk yield and milk constituents were similar between all VMS categories and between healthy cows and cows with PVD. Although cows in the 4 VMS categories had statistically similar CCP, cows with PVD had a significantly longer CCP than healthy cows on average (9 d). The hazard ratio for cows with PVD was 0.66, indicating a 34% higher risk of a prolonged CCP than healthy cows. Odds ratio analysis determined that cows with PVD were 3 times more likely not to conceive at all, twice as likely not to conceive at first service, twice as likely not to conceive by 100 d postpartum, and 3 times more likely to fail to conceive before 150 d postpartum compared with healthy cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized as having low or high milk yield, based on whether they were above or below the median 305-d milk yield of the study population (6,571 kg) in the lactation before vaginal mucus scoring. Based on a univariate odds ratio, high-yield cows were 1.6 times more likely to present with PVD in the subsequent lactation. The number of services per conception did not differ between healthy and PVD cows in the low- and high-yield groups. In the high-yield group, cows with PVD were 4.9 times more likely not to conceive, 2.7 times more likely to require multiple services to conceive, 2.1 times more likely to remain not pregnant by 100 d postpartum, and 4.4 times more likely to remain not pregnant by 150 d postpartum. The CCP was also significantly longer in cows with PVD than their healthy counterparts (115.9 ± 4.9 and 104 ± 7.4 d, respectively). In conclusion, PVD significantly increased the CCP in all cows, but to a greater extent in cows with a high milk yield in the lactation before disease diagnosis.
    • Exposure of Agaricus bisporus to Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum leads to growth inhibition and induction of an oxidative stress response

      Kosanovic, Dejana; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Science Foundation Ireland; Irish Research Council; 12/RI/2346.; GOIPD/2018/115 (Elsevier, 2020-07-23)
      Green mould disease of mushroom, Agaricus bisporus,is caused by Trichodermaspecies and can result in substantial crop losses.Label free proteomic analysis of changes in the abundance of A. bisporusproteins following exposure to T. aggressivumsupernatantin vitroindicated increased abundance of proteins associated with an oxidative stress response (zinc ion binding (+6.6 fold); peroxidase activity (5.3-fold); carboxylic ester hydrolase (+2.4 fold); dipeptidase (+3.2 fold); [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly (+3.3 fold)). Proteins that decreased in relative abundance were associated with growth: structural constituent of ribosome, translation (-12 fold), deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA (-3.4 fold), and small GTPase mediated signal transduction (-2.6 fold). In vivoanalysis revealed that 10-4 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 29% to 56% and 10-3 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 68% to 100%. Proteins that increased in abundance in A. bisporusin vivofollowing exposure to T. aggressivumindicated an oxidative stress response and included proteins with pyruvate kinase activity (+2.6 fold) and hydrolase activity (+2.1 fold)). The results indicate that exposure of A. bisporusmycelium to T. aggressivum in vitroand in vivoresulted in an oxidative stress response and reduction in growth.
    • An investigation of anticoccidial veterinary drugs as emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

      Mooney, D.; Richards, Karl G.; Danaher, Martin; Grant, Jim; Gill, L.; Mellander, Per‐Erik; Coxon, C.E.; Science Foundation Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 13/RC/2092,; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-07-26)
      Intensification of the food production system to meet increased global demand for food has led to veterinary pharmaceuticals becoming a critical component in animal husbandry. Anticoccidials are a group of veterinary products used to control coccidiosis in food-producing animals, with primary prophylactic use in poultry production. Excretion in manure and subsequent land-spreading provides a potential pathway to groundwater. Information on the fate and occurrence of these compounds in groundwater is scant, therefore these substances are potential emerging organic contaminants of concern. A study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of anticoccidial compounds in groundwater throughout the Republic of Ireland. Twenty-six anticoccidials (6 ionophores and 20 synthetic anticoccidials) were analysed at 109 sites (63 boreholes and 46 springs) during November and December 2018. Sites were categorised and selected based on the following source and pathway factors: (a) the presence/absence of poultry activity (b) predominant aquifer category and (c) predominant groundwater vulnerability, within the zone of contribution (ZOC) for each site. Seven anticoccidials, including four ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin and salinomycin) and three synthetic anticoccidials (amprolium, diclazuril and nicarbazin), were detected at 24% of sites at concentrations ranging from 1 to 386 ng L−1. Monensin and amprolium were the two most frequently detected compounds, detected at 15% and 7% of sites, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis has shown that source factors are the most significant drivers of the occurrence of anticoccidials, with no definitive relationships between occurrence and pathway factors. The study found that the detection of anticoccidial compounds is 6.5 times more likely when poultry activity is present within the ZOC of a sampling point, compared to the absence of poultry activity. This work presents the first detections of these contaminants in Irish groundwater and it contributes to broadening our understanding of the environmental occurrence and fate of anticoccidial veterinary products.
    • Delivery of β-carotene to the in vitro intestinal barrier using nanoemulsions with lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers

      Gasa-Falcon, Ariadna; Arranz, Elena; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Giblin, Linda; Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; European Union; Enterprise Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-13)
      To increase the intestinal delivery of dietary β-carotene, there is a need to develop nanostructured food systems to encapsulate this fat soluble bioactive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioacessibility and bioavailability across the intestinal barrier of β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with two emulsifiers (lecithin or sodium caseinate) by coupling an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with two in vitro cell culture models (Caco-2 or co-culture of Caco-2/HT29-MTX). Nanoemulsions stabilised with lecithin had significantly higher β-carotene in the gastrointestinal digested micellar fraction, lower β-carotene in the Caco-2 (and Caco-2/HT29-MTX) apical compartment and significantly higher β-carotene in Caco-2 cellular content compared to β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with sodium caseinate. Finally, to assess anti-inflammatory activity of digested nanoemulsions, lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages were exposed to Caco- 2 basolateral samples with levels of TNF-α and IL-β, subsequently quantified. A TNF-α response from stimulated THP-1 macrophages was elicited by basolateral samples, regardless the emulsifier used to formulate nanoemulsions. This study demonstrated that β-carotene permeability is influenced by the food derived emulsifier used for stabilising nanoemulsions, indicating that composition may be a critical factor for β-carotene delivery.
    • The gut microbiome influences the bioavailability of olanzapine in rats

      Cussotto, Sofia; Walsh, Jacinta; Golubeva, Anna V.; Zhdanov, Alexander V.; Strain, Conall R.; Fouhy, Fiona; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Hyland, Niall P.; Clarke, Gerard; et al. (The Lancet, 2021-04-02)
      Background The role of the gut microbiome in the biotransformation of drugs has recently come under scrutiny. It remains unclear whether the gut microbiome directly influences the extent of drug absorbed after oral administration and thus potentially alters clinical pharmacokinetics. Methods In this study, we evaluated whether changes in the gut microbiota of male Sprague Dawley rats, as a result of either antibiotic or probiotic administration, influenced the oral bioavailability of two commonly prescribed antipsychotics, olanzapine and risperidone. Findings The bioavailability of olanzapine, was significantly increased (1.8-fold) in rats that had undergone antibiotic-induced depletion of gut microbiota, whereas the bioavailability of risperidone was unchanged. There was no direct effect of microbiota depletion on the expression of major CYP450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of either drug. However, the expression of UGT1A3 in the duodenum was significantly downregulated. The reduction in faecal enzymatic activity, observed during and after antibiotic administration, did not alter the ex vivo metabolism of olanzapine or risperidone. The relative abundance of Alistipes significantly correlated with the AUC of olanzapine but not risperidone. Interpretation Alistipes may play a role in the observed alterations in olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The gut microbiome might be an important variable determining the systemic bioavailability of orally administered olanzapine. Additional research exploring the potential implication of the gut microbiota on the clinical pharmacokinetics of olanzapine in humans is warranted. Funding This research is supported by APC Microbiome Ireland, a research centre funded by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), through the Irish Government's National Development Plan (grant no. 12/RC/2273 P2) and by Nature Research-Yakult (The Global Grants for Gut Health; Ref No. 626891).
    • Is urban growing of fruit and vegetables associated with better diet quality and what mediates this relationship? Evidence from a cross-sectional survey

      Mead, Bethan R.; Christiansen, Paul; Davies, Jessica A.C.; Falagán, Natalia; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Liu, Lingxuan; Walsh, Lael; Hardman, Charlotte A.; Global Food Security; Biotechnology and Biological Services Research Council; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-03-18)
      Urban agriculture (UA), the growing of fruits and vegetables in urban and peri-urban areas, may improve food security and access, public health and dietary quality on both a broad and personal scale. However, there is little research on the relationship between UA and diet, and potential mediating factors are also unclear. This study aimed to investigate if proximity to and engagement with UA is associated with better diet quality, and what accounts for this relationship. UK-based adults (N = 583, 69% Female) completed measures of proximity to and engagement with UA, perceived access to fruits and vegetables, health and ethical food choice motivations, connection with nature, psychological distress and dietary quality in an online survey. Participants were recruited from UA-related groups and the general public. Proposed relationships were analysed using a structural equation model. Greater proximity to and engagement with UA was associated with greater perceived access to fruits and vegetables, more health-related food choice motivations, more ethical-related food choice, feeling more connected with nature, and, surprisingly greater psychological distress. Furthermore, proximity to and engagement with UA was indirectly associated with better diet quality via health-, and ethical-related, food choice motivations. While the direct pathway between proximity to and engagement with UA and diet quality was not significant, UA is associated with better diet quality, partly via healthier and ethical food choice motivations. Upscaling UA may have benefits for dietary quality via these factors, and more research is needed to test causal relationships and understand these complex interactions.
    • Quantification of cow milk yield and pre-weaning calf growth response in temperate pasture-based beef suckler systems: A meta-analysis

      Sapkota, D.; Kelly, A.K.; Crosson, Paul; White, R.R.; McGee, Mark; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2020-11)
      The objectives of this study were to quantitatively summarize factors associated with cow milk yield (MY) and calf growth response in pasture-based beef cow-calf suckler systems and to discern how cow genotype and parity influenced these responses. A dataset of 344 treatment mean observations was compiled from 69 studies that reported data on cow MY, and calf pre-weaning average daily live weight gain (ADG) and/or weaning weight (WW). Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models with study and region included as random effects. Models were developed for cow MY, calf ADG and WW response and each model was evaluated based on different model fit statistics. The final cow MY model included cow origin (Dairybeef or Beef), cow maturity (early-maturing (EM) or late-maturing (LM) genotypes) and parity. Dairybeef produced 35.4% more milk (8.64 vs. 6.38 kg/day) than Beef cows, and LM produced 20.9% more milk (8.20 vs. 6.78 kg/day) than EM genotypes (P < 0.001). Multiparous cows had a 14.8% higher MY (8.11 vs. 7.06 kg/day) compared to primiparous cows (P < 0.001). Lactation curve persistency was better (P < 0.05) for Beef and EM compared to Dairybeef and LM genotype cows, respectively. The final models of calf ADG and WW included cow origin, cow maturity and parity. Calves from Dairybeef and LM cows were 14 and 20 kg heavier (P < 0.001) at weaning (210-day adjusted) compared to those from Beef and EM genotype cows, respectively. Calves from multiparous cows were 13 kg heavier at weaning than those from primiparous cows (P < 0.001). The response in calf ADG associated with a 1 kg increase in cow daily MY was 47 and 53 g for Dairybeef and Beef cows, respectively (P < 0.001). Corresponding responses for EM and LM cows were 51 and 55 g (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the relationships between cow MY and calf pre-weaning growth, as well as the quantitative impact of cow genotype and parity were determined for pasture-based beef suckler systems; the coefficients generated can be used for improving beef cow-calf management strategies, beef cattle breeding programmes and bio-economic modelling purposes.
    • Enduring Behavioral Effects Induced by Birth by Caesarean Section in the Mouse

      Morais, Livia H.; Golubeva, Anna V.; Moloney, Gerard M; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science without Borders; et al. (2020-08-20)
      Birth by Caesarean (C)-section impacts early gut microbiota colonization and is associated with an increased risk of developing immune and metabolic disorders. Moreover, alterations of the microbiome have been shown to affect neurodevelopmental trajectories. However, the long-term effects of C-section on neurobehavioral processes remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that birth by C-section results in marked but transient changes in microbiome composition in the mouse, in particular, the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was depleted in early life. Mice born by C-section had enduring social, cognitive, and anxiety deficits in early life and adulthood. Interestingly, we found that these specific behavioral alterations induced by the mode of birth were also partially corrected by co-housing with vaginally born mice. Finally, we showed that supplementation from birth with a Bifidobacterium breve strain, or with a dietary prebiotic mixture that stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria, reverses selective behavioral alterations in C-section mice. Taken together, our data link the gut microbiota to behavioral alterations in C-section-born mice and suggest the possibility of developing adjunctive microbiota-targeted therapies that may help to avert long-term negative consequences on behavior associated with C-section birth mode.
    • Whey for Sarcopenia; Can Whey Peptides, Hydrolysates or Proteins Play a Beneficial Role?

      Gilmartin, Sarah; O’Brien, Nora; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; FIRM 15F604-TOMI; 16/RC/3835-VistaMilk (MDPI AG, 2020-06-05)
      As the human body ages, skeletal muscle loses its mass and strength. It is estimated that in 10% of individuals over the age of 60, this muscle frailty has progressed to sarcopenia. Biomarkers of sarcopenia include increases in inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers and decreases in muscle anabolic markers. Whey is a high-quality, easily digested dairy protein which is widely used in the sports industry. This review explores the evidence that whey protein, hydrolysates or peptides may have beneficial effects on sarcopenic biomarkers in myoblast cell lines, in aged rodents and in human dietary intervention trials with the older consumer. A daily dietary supplementation of 35 g of whey is likely to improve sarcopenic biomarkers in frail or sarcopenia individuals. Whey supplementation, consumed by an older, healthy adult certainly improves muscle mTOR signaling, but exercise appears to have the greatest benefit to older muscle. In vitro cellular assays are central for bioactive and bioavailable peptide identification and to determine their mechanism of action on ageing muscle.
    • The Potential Impact of Probiotics on the Gut Microbiome of Athletes

      Wosinska, Laura; Cotter, Paul D.; O’Sullivan, Orla; Guinane, Caitriona; Science Foundation Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273 (MDPI AG, 2019-09-21)
      There is accumulating evidence that physical fitness influences the gut microbiome and as a result, promotes health. Indeed, exercise-induced alterations in the gut microbiome can influence health parameters crucial to athletic performance, specifically, immune function, lower susceptibility to infection, inflammatory response and tissue repair. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy gut microbiome is essential for an athlete’s health, training and performance. This review explores the effect of exercise on the microbiome while also investigating the effect of probiotics on various potential consequences associated with over-training in athletes, as well as their associated health benefits.
    • Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome, Part I: Current State of the Science

      Mills, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Lane, Jonathan; Smith, Graeme; Ross, R. (MDPI AG, 2019-04-24)
      The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, energy homeostasis and protection against pathogens. These activities are dependent on the quantity and quality of the microbiota alongside its metabolic potential, which are dictated by a number of factors, including diet and host genetics. In this regard, the gut microbiome is malleable and varies significantly from host to host. These two features render the gut microbiome a candidate ‘organ’ for the possibility of precision microbiomics—the use of the gut microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to specific dietary constituents to generate precision diets and interventions for optimal health. With this in mind, this two-part review investigates the current state of the science in terms of the influence of diet and specific dietary components on the gut microbiota and subsequent consequences for health status, along with opportunities to modulate the microbiota for improved health and the potential of the microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to dietary components. In particular, in Part I, we examine the development of the microbiota from birth and its role in health. We investigate the consequences of poor-quality diet in relation to infection and inflammation and discuss diet-derived microbial metabolites which negatively impact health. We look at the role of diet in shaping the microbiome and the influence of specific dietary components, namely protein, fat and carbohydrates, on gut microbiota composition.
    • Nanoemulsions and acidified milk gels as a strategy for improving stability and antioxidant activity of yarrow phenolic compounds after gastrointestinal digestion

      Villalva, M.; Jaime, L.; Arranz, E.; Zhao, Z.; Corredig, M.; Reglero, G.; Santoyo, S. (Elsevier BV, 2020-04)
      The aim of this study was to improve the stability and antioxidant activity of yarrow phenolic compounds upon an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, two types of caseins-based delivery systems, sodium caseinate stabilized nanoemulsions (NEs) and glucono delta-lactone acidified milk gels (MGs), were formulated containing an ultrasound-assisted yarrow extract (YE) at two concentrations (1 and 2.5 mg/mL). Formulations with 1 mg/mL of YE were chosen based on their higher encapsulation efficiency to perform the in vitro digestion experiments. After digestion, YE-loaded NEs only partially protected phenolic compounds from degradation; meanwhile the phenolic composition of YE including in MGs after digestion was quite similar to undigested YE. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of MGs after digestion was higher than NEs digested samples, which confirms the higher protection of YE phenolic compound by the milk gels systems. This research demonstrated the potential use of acidified MGs as carriers to improve the stability and antioxidant activity of yarrow phenolic compounds. Therefore, these matrices could be employed to develop new dairy products enriched with phenolic compounds.