Now showing items 21-40 of 3147

    • An association analysis of sow parity, live-weight and back-fat depth as indicators of sow productivity

      Lavery, A.; Lawlor, P.G.; Magowan, E.; Miller, H.M.; O’Driscoll, K.; Berry, D.P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; University of Leeds (Elsevier BV, 2019)
      Understanding how critical sow live-weight and back-fat depth during gestation are in ensuring optimum sow productivity is important. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between sow parity, live-weight and back-fat depth during gestation with subsequent sow reproductive performance. Records of 1058 sows and 13 827 piglets from 10 trials on two research farms between the years 2005 and 2015 were analysed. Sows ranged from parity 1 to 6 with the number of sows per parity distributed as follows: 232, 277, 180, 131, 132 and 106, respectively. Variables that were analysed included total born (TB), born alive (BA), piglet birth weight (BtWT), pre-weaning mortality (PWM), piglet wean weight (WnWT), number of piglets weaned (Wn), wean to service interval (WSI), piglets born alive in subsequent farrowing and sow lactation feed intake. Calculated variables included the within-litter CV in birth weight (LtV), pre-weaning growth rate per litter (PWG), total litter gain (TLG), lactation efficiency and litter size reared after cross-fostering. Data were analysed using linear mixed models accounting for covariance among records. Third and fourth parity sows had more (P<0.05) TB, BA and heavier BtWT compared with gilts and parity 6 sow contemporaries. Parities 2 and 3 sows weaned more (P<0.05) piglets than older sows. These piglets had heavier (P<0.05) birth weights than those from gilt litters. LtV and PWM were greater (P<0.01) in litters born to parity 5 sows than those born to younger sows. Sow live-weight and back-fat depth at service, days 25 and 50 of gestation were not associated with TB, BA, BtWT, LtV, PWG, WnWT or lactation efficiency (P>0.05). Heavier sow live-weight throughout gestation was associated with an increase in PWM (P<0.01) and reduced Wn and lactation feed intake (P<0.05). Deeper back-fat in late gestation was associated with fewer (P<0.05) BA but heavier (P<0.05) BtWT, whereas deeper back-fat depth throughout gestation was associated with reduced (P<0.01) lactation feed intake. Sow back-fat depth was not associated with LtV, PWG, TLG, WSI or piglets born alive in subsequent farrowing (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that sow parity, live-weight and back-fat depth can be used as indicators of reproductive performance. In addition, this study also provides validation for future development of a benchmarking tool to monitor and improve the productivity of modern sow herd.
    • Detection of stx2 from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) by a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor using recycled silicon chips

      Yang, Yuqing; Adela Wasiewska, Luiza; Burgess, Catherine M.; Duffy, Geraldine; Lovera, Pierre; O'Riordan, Alan; European Union; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-12-15)
      In this research, a selective, cost-efficient, and highly sensitive Ag nanostructure Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensor was developed as a methodological approach to rapidly detect a targetss-DNA (stx2) in STEC (Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli). The Ag nanostructure-based SERS substrate was functionalized by two types of thiols: thiol-ss-DNA for bonding target ss-DNA and 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol (HS(CH2)6OH) for blocking the Ag nanostructure surface. Methylene Blue (MB) was used as a Raman marker to quantify target ss-DNA, as well as a model molecule to characterize the electrodeposited Ag nanostructure SERS substrate. Ag nanostructure SERS substrates showed good sensitivity and repeatability towards MB detection, with a LOD = 0.3158 μM, and RSD = 12.48% (at 45 different random points for 0.1 μM MB). More importantly, the Ag nanostructure/ss-DNA SERS substrate showed good selectivity towards STEC O157 stx2 target DNA, as well as good linearity and sensitivity towards its detection in a buffer solution. A limit of detection of 0.4900 aM and a wide linear range from 1 aM to 100 pM were demonstrated. The SERS sensors were able to identify target DNA (stx2) in a STEC strain and the study showed proof of principle that SERS substrate has potential as a cost-effective, highly selective, highly sensitive DNA and bacteria sensor without the aid of DNA amplification. With further development and validation, this methodological approach has the potential for point-of-use detection for instance on a farm or in the food industry.
    • Effects of pen faeces and feed contamination in biomarkers determination in oral fluid of pigs

      Franco-Martínez, Lorena; Ortín-Bustillo, Alba; Rubio, Camila P.; Escribano, Damián; López-Arjona, Marina; García-Manzanilla, Edgar; Cerón, José J.; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Tecles, Fernando; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-12-20)
      The present study aims to evaluate the possible effects of the presence of pen faeces and feed on the measurement of a panel of biomarkers in porcine oral fluid. For this, clean porcine oral fluid was pooled and incubated with two different concentrations of pen faeces or feed representing a high or low level of contamination with each material. In addition, these pools were aliquoted and subjected to centrifugation, filtration or chemical clarification to evaluate if these techniques could revert the effects of those contaminants in biomarker evaluation. A panel of 21 biomarkers that assessed stress, inflammation, immune system and redox homeostasis among others, were measured for all aliquots. Changes of statistical relevance (p < 0.05) in oral fluid contaminated with pen faeces or feed versus untreated samples were observed for all methods employed with the exception of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and creatine kinase (CK) in oral fluid contaminated with pen faeces or feed. Pen faeces did not affect the measurement of haptoglobin, superoxide dismutase, CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ADA and cortisol (when the latter is measured by chemiluminescence); while uric acid, LDH, CK, ADA, and hydrogen peroxide methods were not affected by the presence of feed in oral fluid. The effects of centrifugation, filtration or chemical clarification with chitosan in these contaminated samples were modest and for most cases did not caused baseline levels on the measured biomarkers. In conclusion, the presence of pen faeces or feed in porcine oral fluid can interfere with the results obtained when analytes are measured.
    • Low temperature microfiltration of skim milk: Impact of membrane type, configuration and concentration factor on serum protein permeation efficiency

      Subhir, Surabhi; McSweeney, Paul L.H.; Fenelon, Mark; Tobin, John T.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; FIRM, 15/F/683 (Elsevier, 2023-02-28)
      Protein transmission, permeate flux and energy consumption during MF of skim milk was evaluated at 7 °C using two discrete 800 kDa polymeric MF membranes. Filtration trials determined optimum process parameters (i.e., transmembrane pressure and volume concentration factor) and membrane configuration (in-series or in-parallel) to maximise serum protein permeation. This study demonstrated that a combination of higher VCF (3) and lower TMP (75 kPa), with an in-parallel membrane configuration resulted in the most efficient rate of permeation of serum protein per kg of permeate produced. However, from an energy perspective, an in-parallel configuration with a TMP of 75 kPa and a lower VCF2 was the most efficient process, consuming between 1.28 and 1.57 kW h kg−1 of crude protein permeated. Additionally, the permeation of serum β-casein at low temperature was governed by the uniformity of the pore size distribution in discrete MF membranes with the same nominal molecular mass cut-off.
    • An investigation of extracellular vesicles in bovine colostrum, first milk and milk over the lactation curve

      Santoro, Jessie; Mukhopadhya, Anindya; Oliver, Charlotte; Brodkorb, Andre; Giblin, Linda; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Department of Agriculture, Food & Marine, Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; 17/F/234; 16/RC/3835 VistaMilk (Elsevier, 2023-02-01)
      Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk have claimed benefits ranging from conveying immunological privilege to infants to being suitable as natural delivery vehicles for therapeutic drugs. However, a longitudinal study of bovine EVs quantities and characteristics in colostrum (COL), first milk (FM) and throughout the lactation curve of mature milk (MM) had never been performed and so was our aim. COL, FM and 9 months of MM samples were collected. Caseins -overlapping size with EVs- were removed. EVs were collected by density gradient ultracentrifugation and characterised by SDS-PAGE, Bradford assay, nanoparticle tracking analysis, immunoblotting, imaging flow cytometry analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. COL and FM had substantially more EVs than MM, with COL enriched in small EVs. No significant differences were observed between months 1–9 of MM. Altogether, although COL and FM are particularly rich sources of EVs, mature milk throughout the lactation curve is also an abundant source of intact EVs.
    • Food for thought: The role of nutrition in the microbiota-gut–brain axis

      Seira Oriach, Clara; Robertson, Ruairi C.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board of Ireland; Sea Change Strategy, NutraMara programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) in Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-04-30)
      Recent research has provided strong evidence for the role of the commensal gut microbiota in brain function and behaviour. Many potential pathways are involved in this bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain such as immune mechanisms, the vagus nerve and microbial neurometabolite production. Dysbiosis of gut microbial function has been associated with behavioural and neurophysical deficits, therefore research focused on developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat psychiatric disorders by targeting the gut microbiota is rapidly growing. Numerous factors can influence the gut microbiota composition such as health status, mode of birth delivery and genetics, but diet is considered among the most crucial factors impacting on the human gut microbiota from infancy to old age. Thus, dietary interventions may have the potential to modulate psychiatric symptoms associated with gut–brain axis dysfunction. Further clinical and in vivo studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and control of behaviour and mental health.
    • Investigation of breakage behavior and its effects on spray-dried agglomerated whey protein-lactose powders: Effect of protein and lactose contents

      Han, Jie; Fitzpatrick, John; Cronin, Kevin; Maidannyk, Valentyn; Miao, Song; Teagasc; 0153 (Elsevier, 2022-09-22)
      Particle breakage of dairy powders occurs easily during many processes, reducing the powder functionality. The characteristics of particles and the applied stress from processing conditions on the particles are 2 main factors that can be manipulated to reduce breakage. In this study, we explored the effect of whey protein and lactose contents on dynamic breakage in agglomerated whey protein-lactose powders to provide useful information, in terms of particle characteristics, for controlling unwanted dairy powder breakage. A series of model agglomerates with different whey protein:lactose ratios were produced under the same spray-drying conditions, through a pilot plant trial. We evaluated physical characteristics, composition, and structure of samples; analyzed dynamic breakage under different mechanical stresses; and investigated the rehydration and water adsorption properties of model powders before and after breakage. The particle size and irregularity of agglomerates with more lactose was significantly higher than of samples that contained more protein. This resulted in higher particle breakage during dynamic breakage for samples with more lactose. The breakage of agglomerates was affected by the moisture content of powders and fatigue, where particle breakage happens when mechanical loads, lower than the strength of particles, occur multiple times. Breakage changed the morphology and surface composition of particles and decreased particle size. It also decreased the dispersibility of powders and increased the wetting time of wettable samples but decreased the wetting time of powders with poor wettability. Breakage accelerated time-dependent crystallization and decreased the crystallization temperature but did not affect the glass transition temperature of samples. Thus, under the same drying conditions, composition of powders significantly affected breakage, mainly by altering the physical properties of their particles, which resulted in deteriorated functionality.
    • Ammonia emissions from agriculture and their contribution to fine particulate matter: A review of implications for human health

      Wyer, Katie E.; Kelleghan, David B.; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schauberger, Günther; Curran, Thomas P.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food, and the Marine; 2019R554 (Elsevier, 2022-12-01)
      Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) released from agriculture is contributing significantly to acidification and atmospheric NH3 may have on human health is much less readily available. The potential direct impact of NH3 on the health of the general public is under-represented in scientific literature, though there have been several studies which indicate that NH3 has a direct effect on the respiratory health of those who handle livestock. These health impacts can include a reduced lung function, irritation to the throat and eyes, and increased coughing and phlegm expulsion. More recent studies have indicated that agricultural NH3 may directly influence the early on-set of asthma in young children. In addition to the potential direct impact of ammonia, it is also a substantial contributor to the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) fraction (namely the US and Europe); where it accounts for the formation of 30% and 50% of all PM2.5 respectively. PM2.5 has the ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and cause long term illnesses such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Hence, PM2.5 causes economic losses which equate to billions of dollars (US) to the global economy annually. Both premature deaths associated with the health impacts from PM2.5 and economic losses could be mitigated with a reduction in NH3 emissions resulting from agriculture. As agriculture contributes to more than 81% of all global NH3 emissions, it is imperative that food production does not come at a cost to the world's ability to breathe; where reductions in NH3 emissions can be easier to achieve than other associated pollutants.
    • Hoof lesions in partly housed pasture-based dairy cows

      Browne, N.; Hudson, C.D.; Crossley, R.E.; Sugrue, K.; Huxley, J.N.; Conneely, M.; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship (Elsevier, 2022-09-27)
      Lameness is a symptom of a painful disorder affecting the limbs, which impacts dairy cow welfare and productivity. Lameness is primarily caused by hoof lesions. The prevalence of different lesion types can differ depending on environmental conditions and farm management practices. The aims of this observational study were to establish the cow-level and herd-level lesion prevalence during both housing and grazing periods in a partly housed, pasture-based system, establish the prevalence of lesions always associated with pain (“alarm” lesion), identify the lesions associated with a higher lameness score, determine relationships between lesions, and identify risk factors for digital dermatitis. On 98 farms during the grazing period and on 74 of the same farms during the housing period, every cow was lameness scored (0–3 lameness scoring scale), and the hind hooves of lame cows (score 2 and 3) were examined (maximum 20 cows per visit) and the prevalence of each lesion type recorded. To gather data on potential predictors for the risk factor analysis, a questionnaire with the farmer was conducted on lameness management practices and infrastructure measurements were taken at each visit. Cow-level data were also collected (e.g., parity, breed, milk yield, and so on). Noninfectious lesions were found to be more prevalent than infectious lesions in this system type. The most prevalent lesion types during both grazing and housing periods were white line separation, sole hemorrhages and overgrown claws; all remaining lesions had a cow-level prevalence of less than 15%. The cow-level prevalence of alarm lesions was 19% during the grazing period and 25% during the housing period; the most prevalent alarm lesion was sole ulcers during both periods. We found significantly more foreign bodies within the hoof sole (grazing = 14%, housing = 7%) and overgrown claws (grazing = 71%, housing = 55%) during the grazing period compared with the housing period. Cows with foul of the foot, sole ulcer, white line abscess, toe necrosis or an amputated claw had higher odds of being more severely lame, compared with mildly lame. The strongest correlation between lesions were between toe necrosis and digital dermatitis (r = 0.40), overgrown claws and corkscrew claws (r = 0.33), and interdigital hyperplasia and digital dermatitis (r = 0.31) at herd level. At the cow level, the strongest correlation was between overgrown claws and corkscrew claws (r = 0.27), and digital dermatitis and heel erosion (r = 0.22). The farmers' perception of the presence of digital dermatitis (and lameness) was significantly correlated with the actual presence of digital dermatitis recorded. Additional risk factors for the presence of digital dermatitis were cow track and verge width near the collecting yard, and stone presence on the cow tracks. Results from this study help further our understanding of the causes of lameness in partly housed, pasture-based dairy cows, and can be used to guide prevention and treatment protocols.
    • Detection of Genomic Imprinting for Carcass Traits in Cattle Using Imputed High-Density Genotype Data.

      Kenny, David; Sleator, Roy D; Murphy, Craig P; Evans, Ross D; Berry, Donagh P; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; RSF 17/S/235; 16/RC/3835; VistaMilk (Frontiers, 2022-07-15)
      Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon defined as the silencing of an allele, at least partially, at a given locus based on the sex of the transmitting parent. The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of SNP-phenotype imprinting associations for carcass weight (CW), carcass conformation (CC) and carcass fat (CF) in cattle. The data used comprised carcass data, along with imputed, high-density genotype data on 618,837 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 23,687 cattle; all animal genotypes were phased with respect to parent of origin. Based on the phased genotypes and a series of single-locus linear models, 24, 339, and 316 SNPs demonstrated imprinting associations with CW, CC, and CF, respectively. Regardless of the trait in question, no known imprinted gene was located within 0.5 Mb of the SNPs demonstrating imprinting associations in the present study. Since all imprinting associations detected herein were at novel loci, further investigation of these regions may be warranted. Nonetheless, knowledge of these associations might be useful for improving the accuracy of genomic evaluations for these traits, as well as mate allocations systems to exploit the effects of genomic imprinting.
    • Alteration of Physicochemical Properties and Heating Stability of Reconstituted Acid Whey Powder by Calcium Chelating Salts

      Purwanti, Nanik; Mulcahy, Shane; Murphy, Eoin; Enterprise Ireland; EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions; MF20180049; 713654 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-09-08)
      Trisodium citrate (TSC) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2-EDTA) were applied in reconstituted acid whey powder (AWP) at 20% w/w, which mimicked acid whey concentration during industrial whey processing. Physicochemical properties and heat stability of the AWP suspensions with 0–50 mM TSC and Na2-EDTA at pH 6.2 were investigated. TSC-containing suspensions prior to heating had decreasing Ca2+ activity, levels of sedimentation, and subtle reduction of aggregate size with increasing TSC concentrations (0–50 mM). Unheated Na2-EDTA-containing suspensions had lower levels of sedimentation and smaller aggregate sizes than unheated TSC-containing suspensions; however, reduction of Ca2+ activity was only observed up to 20 mM Na2-EDTA. Stronger effects of Na2-EDTA than TSC on levels of sediment, viscosity, and aggregate size of AWP suspensions were observed after heating, except for 50 mM Na2-EDTA. A remarkable difference between TSC and Na2-EDTA addition was the nature of aggregates formed in heated suspensions. TSC-containing suspensions contained larger aggregates than corresponding Na2-EDTA-containing suspensions, which exhibited increasing shear thinning behavior as a function of concentration. In contrast, the smaller aggregates in the corresponding Na2-EDTA-containing suspension showed shear thickening. The inverse relationship between aggregate size and levels of sediment for TSC-containing suspensions post-heat treatment may indicate the formation of loose aggregates that resist sedimentation.
    • Selecting Milk Spectra to Develop Equations to Predict Milk Technological Traits

      Frizzarin, Maria; Gormley, Isobel Claire; Casa, Alessandro; McParland, Sinéad; Science Foundation Ireland; 18/SIRG/5562; 16/RC/3835 (VistaMilk) (MDPI AG, 2021-12-11)
      Including all available data when developing equations to relate midinfrared spectra to a phenotype may be suboptimal for poorly represented spectra. Here, an alternative local changepoint approach was developed to predict six milk technological traits from midinfrared spectra. Neighbours were objectively identified for each predictand as those most similar to the predictand using the Mahalanobis distances between the spectral principal components, and subsequently used in partial least square regression (PLSR) analyses. The performance of the local changepoint approach was compared to that of PLSR using all spectra (global PLSR) and another LOCAL approach, whereby a fixed number of neighbours was used in the prediction according to the correlation between the predictand and the available spectra. Global PLSR had the lowest RMSEV for five traits. The local changepoint approach had the lowest RMSEV for one trait; however, it outperformed the LOCAL approach for four traits. When the 5% of the spectra with the greatest Mahalanobis distance from the centre of the global principal component space were analysed, the local changepoint approach outperformed the global PLSR and the LOCAL approach in two and five traits, respectively. The objective selection of neighbours improved the prediction performance compared to utilising a fixed number of neighbours; however, it generally did not outperform the global PLSR.
    • Validation of maternal and terminal sheep breeding objectives using Irish field data

      McHugh, Noirin; McDermott, Kevin; Bohan, Alan; Farrell, Lydia J; Herron, Jonathan; Pabiou, Thierry; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine; GREENBREED (17/S/235); ERA-GAS (2019EN202; GrassToGas) (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-07-23)
      Genetic evaluations provide producers with a tool to aid in breeding decisions and highlight the increase in performance achievable at the farm level through genetic gain. Despite this, large-scale validation of sheep breeding objectives using field data is lacking in the scientific literature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phenotypic differences for a range of economically important traits for animals divergent in genetic merit for the Irish national maternal and terminal sheep breeding objectives. A dataset of 17,356 crossbred ewes and 54,322 progeny differing in their maternal and terminal breeding index recorded in 139 commercial flocks was available. The association of the maternal index of the ewe or terminal index of the ram and a range of phenotypic performance traits, including lambing, lamb performance, ewe performance, and health traits, were undertaken. Ewes excelling on the maternal index had higher litter sizes and produced progeny with greater perinatal lamb survival, heavier live weights from birth to postweaning and reduced days to slaughter (P < 0.05). Ewe maternal index had no quantifiable impact on lambing ease, carcass conformation, or fat, the health status of the ewe or lamb, ewe barren rate, or ewe live weight. Lambs born to rams of superior terminal index produced heavier lambs from preweaning onwards, with a reduced day to slaughter (P < 0.05). Lambing traits, lamb health, and carcass characteristics of the progeny did not differ between sires stratified as low or high on the terminal index (P > 0.05). Results from this study highlight that selecting either ewes or rams of superior maternal or terminal attributes will result in an improvement on pertinent performance traits of the national sheep flock, resulting in greater flock productivity and profitability.
    • Effect of a bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius on the pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum in a model of the human distal colon

      Lawrence, Garreth W.; McCarthy, Niamh; Walsh, Calum J.; Kunyoshi, Tais M.; Lawton, Elaine M.; O’Connor, Paula M.; Begley, Máire; Cotter, Paul D.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2022-07-25)
      The gut microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbes, some of which produce antimicrobial peptides called bacteriocins that may inhibit specific bacteria associated with disease. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an emerging human bacterial pathogen associated with gastrointestinal diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, fecal samples of healthy donors were screened for potential bacteriocin-producing probiotics with antimicrobial activity against F. nucleatum. A novel isolate, designated as Streptococcus salivarius DPC6993 demonstrated a narrow-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against F. nucleatum in vitro. In silico analysis of the S. salivarius DPC6993 genome revealed the presence of genes involved in the production of the bacteriocins salivaricin A5 and salivaricin B. After 6 h in a colon fermentation model, there was a significant drop in the number of F. nucleatum in samples that had been simultaneously inoculated with S. salivarius DPC6993 + F. nucleatum DSM15643 compared to those inoculated with F. nucleatum DSM15643 alone (mean ± SD: 9243.3 ± 3408.4 vs 29688.9 ± 4993.9 copies/μl). Furthermore, 16S rRNA amplicon analysis revealed a significant difference in the mean relative abundances of Fusobacterium between samples inoculated with both S. salivarius DPC6993 and F. nucleatum DSM15643 (0.05%) and F. nucleatum DSM15643 only (0.32%). Diversity analysis indicated minimal impact exerted by S. salivarius DPC6993 on the surrounding microbiota. Overall, this study highlights the ability of a natural gut bacterium to target a bacterial pathogen associated with CRC. The specific targeting of CRC-associated pathogens by biotherapeutics may ultimately reduce the risk of CRC development and positively impact CRC outcomes.
    • Use of Probiotic Bacteria and Bacteriocins as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Aquaculture

      Pereira, Wellison Amorim; Mendonça, Carlos Miguel N.; Urquiza, Alejandro Villasante; Marteinsson, Viggó Þór; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Cotter, Paul D.; Villalobos, Elías Figueroa; Romero, Jaime; Oliveira, Ricardo P. S.; São Paulo Research Foundation; et al. (MDPI AG, 2022-08-24)
      In addition to their use in human medicine, antimicrobials are also used in food animals and aquaculture, and their use can be categorized as therapeutic against bacterial infections. The use of antimicrobials in aquaculture may involve a broad environmental application that affects a wide variety of bacteria, promoting the spread of bacterial resistance genes. Probiotics and bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides produced by some types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), have been successfully tested in aquatic animals as alternatives to control bacterial infections. Supplementation might have beneficial impacts on the intestinal microbiota, immune response, development, and/or weight gain, without the issues associated with antibiotic use. Thus, probiotics and bacteriocins represent feasible alternatives to antibiotics. Here, we provide an update with respect to the relevance of aquaculture in the animal protein production sector, as well as the present and future challenges generated by outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance, while highlighting the potential role of probiotics and bacteriocins to address these challenges. In addition, we conducted data analysis using a simple linear regression model to determine whether a linear relationship exists between probiotic dose added to feed and three variables of interest selected, including specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and lysozyme activity.
    • The impact of pasture and non-pasture diets on the sensory and volatile properties of whole milk powder

      Cheng, Zeng; Mannion, David T.; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Miao, Song; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran N. (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022-08-19)
      This study evaluated the impact of three distinct diets; perennial ryegrass (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover (CLV) and total mixed ration (TMR), on the sensory properties and volatile profile of whole milk powder (WMP). The samples were evaluated using a hedonic sensory acceptance test (n = 99 consumers) and by optimised descriptive profiling (ODP) using trained assessors (n = 33). Volatile profiling was achieved by gas chromatography mass spectrometry using three different extraction techniques; headspace solid phase micro-extraction, thermal desorption and high capacity sorptive extraction. Significant differences were evident in both sensory perception and the volatile profiles of the WMP based on the diet, with WMP from GRS and CLV more similar than WMP from TMR. Consumers scored WMP from CLV diets highest for overall acceptability, flavour and quality, and WMP from TMR diets highest for cooked flavour and aftertaste. ODP analysis found that WMP from TMR diets had greater caramelised flavour, sweet aroma and sweet taste, and that WMP from GRS diets had greater cooked aroma and cooked flavour, with WMP derived from CLV diets having greater scores for liking of colour and creamy aroma. Sixty four VOCs were identified, twenty six were found to vary significantly based on diet and seventeen of these were derived from fatty acids; lactones, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. The abundance of δ-decalactone and δ-dodecalactone was very high in WMP derived from CLV and GRS diets as was γ-dodecalactone derived from a TMR diet. These lactones appeared to influence sweet, creamy, and caramelised attributes in the resultant WMP samples. The differences in these VOC derived from lipids due to diet are probably further exacerbated by the thermal treatments used in WMP manufacture.
    • Thermal Death Kinetics of Three Representative Salmonella enterica Strains in Toasted Oats Cereal

      Chick, Matthew; Lourenco, Antonio; Maserati, Alice; Fink, Ryan C.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S; European Union; 2012-67005-19613; 754380 (MDPI AG, 2022-08-04)
      Several reports have indicated that the thermal tolerance of Salmonella at low-water activity increases significantly, but information on the impact of diverse food matrices is still scarce. The goal of this research was to determine the kinetic parameters (decimal reduction time, D; time required for the first decimal reduction, δ) of thermal resistance of Salmonella in a previously cooked low water activity food. Commercial toasted oats cereal (TOC) was used as the food model, with or without sucrose (25%) addition. TOC samples were inoculated with 108 CFU/mL of a single strain of one of three Salmonella serovars (Agona, Tennessee, Typhimurium). TOC samples were ground and equilibrated to aw values of 0.11, 0.33 and 0.53, respectively. Ground TOC was heated at temperatures between 65 °C and 105 °C and viable counts were determined over time (depending on the temperature for up to 6 h). Death kinetic parameters were determined using linear and Weibull regression models. More than 70% of Weibull’s adjusted regression coefficients (R2adj) and only 38% of the linear model’s R2adj had values greater than 0.8. For all serovars, both D and δ values increased consistently at a 0.11 aw compared to 0.33 and 0.53. At 0.33 aw, the δ values for Typhimurium, Tennessee and Agona were 0.55, 1.01 and 2.87, respectively, at 85 °C, but these values increased to 65, 105 and 64 min, respectively, at 0.11 aw. At 100 °C, δ values were 0.9, 5.5 and 2.3 min, respectively, at 0.11 aw. The addition of sucrose resulted in a consistent reduction of eight out of nine δ values determined at 0.11 aw at 85, 95 and 100 °C, but this trend was not consistent at 0.33 and 0.53 aw. The Z values (increase of temperature required to decrease δ-value one log) were determined with modified δ values for a fixed β (a fitting parameter that describes the shape of the curve), and ranged between 8.9 °C and 13.4 °C; they were not influenced by aw, strain or sugar content. These findings indicated that in TOC, high thermal tolerance was consistent among serovars and thermal tolerance was inversely dependent on aw.
    • Sensorial, cultural and volatile properties of milk, dairy powders, yoghurt and butter: A review

      Cheng, Zeng; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Miao, Song; Kerry, Joseph P; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Teagasc; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Scheme; 0003-Cross Cultural Sensory Perception of Selected Irish Dairy Products (Wiley, 2022-07-28)
      Countries with an established dairy tradition consume milk, milk powder, yoghurt and butter directly or as an ingredient; however, in countries without this tradition the lack of familiarity and unknown expectations can be challenging to overcome. Therefore, having a better understanding of the volatile properties that influence their sensory appeal can aid overcoming these challenges. This review focusses on traditional and novel sensory methods used to research milk, milk powders, yoghurt and butter as well as the extraction techniques used in gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry to identify volatiles in these products that influence sensory perception.
    • Impact of Cattle Feeding Strategy on the Beef Metabolome

      Morales Gómez, Juan Fernando; Brandão Cônsolo, Nara Regina; Silva Antonelo, Daniel; Beline, Mariane; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Higuera-Padilla, Angel; Colnago, Luiz Alberto; Gerrard, David Edwin; Luz Silva, Saulo; São Paulo Research Foundation; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022-07-13)
      The present study explored changes in the meat metabolome of animals subjected to different finishing systems and growth rates. Thirty-six Angus × Nellore crossbred steers were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments: (1) feedlot system with high average daily gain (ADG; FH); (2) feedlot system with low ADG (FL); (3) pasture system with high ADG (PH); and (4) pasture system with low ADG (PL). After harvest and chilling, Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle samples were taken for metabolite profile analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance. Spectrum was analyzed using chenomx software, and multi- and mega-variate data analyses were performed. The PLS-DA showed clear separation between FH and PL groups and overlap among treatments with different finishing systems but similar for matching ADG (FL and PH) treatments. Using a VIP cut-off of around 1.0, ATP and fumarate were shown to be greater in meat from PL cattle, while succinate, leucine, AMP, glutamate, carnosine, inosine, methionine, G1P, and choline were greater in meat from FH. Comparing FL and PH treatments, glutamine, carnosine, urea, NAD+, malonate, lactate, isoleucine, and alanine were greater in the meat of PH cattle, while G6P and betaine were elevated in that of FL cattle. Relevant pathways were also identified by differences in growth rate (FH versus PL) and finishing system were also noted. Growth rate caused a clear difference in meat metabolism that was highlighted by energy metabolism and associated pathways, while the feeding system tended to alter protein and lipid metabolism.
    • Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118™ Dampens Inflammation and Promotes Microbiota Recovery to Provide Therapeutic Benefit in a DSS-Induced Colitis Model

      Iyer, Namrata; Williams, Michelle A.; O’Callaghan, Amy A.; Dempsey, Elaine; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Raverdeau, Mathilde; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D.; Corr, Sinéad C.; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (MDPI AG, 2022-07-09)
      The use of probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. as a therapeutic against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of significant interest. Lactobacillus salivarus strain UCC118TM is a commensal that has been shown to possess probiotic properties in vitro and anti-infective properties in vivo. However, the usefulness of UCC118 TM as a therapeutic against colitis remains unclear. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus salivarius, UCC118™ in a mouse model of colitis. DSS-induced colitis was coupled with pre-treatment or post-treatment with UCC118TM by daily oral gavage. In the pre-treatment model of colitis, UCC118TM reduced the severity of the disease in the early stages. Improvement in disease severity was coupled with an upregulation of tissue IL-10 levels and increased expression of macrophage M2 markers. This anti-inflammatory activity of UCC118TM was further confirmed in vitro, using a model of LPS-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that UCC118TM may promote the resolution of inflammation. This was supported in a mouse model of established DSS-induced colitis whereby UCC118TM treatment accelerated recovery, as evidenced by weight, stool, histological markers and the recovery of microbiome-associated dysbiosis with an increased abundance of beneficial commensal species. These results demonstrate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118TM as a probiotic-based therapeutic strategy to promote health through the upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and protect against dysbiosis during IBD.