Now showing items 21-40 of 2737

    • The effect of natural and induced calving of beef heifers on stress-related gene expression and maternal health and immunity

      Beltman, M.E.; Lewis, J.; McCabe, M.; Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A.; UCD Seed Funding Scheme; SF827 (Elsevier, 2022-06-30)
      The peri-partum processes can exert stress on a cow on many levels. There is little evidence about acute stress around the calving event and subsequent potential effects for the cows’ immunological status or subsequent reproductive health. To investigate this, 55 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental embryos were assigned to one of three groups on day 285 of gestation: (i) control (no parturition induction treatment; n = 19); (ii) induction of parturition with corticosteroid (n = 20) and (iii) induction of parturition with corticosteroid plus prostaglandin (n = 16). Interval from induction of parturition to calving and calving ease was recorded. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 (D21) and Day 42, and a sample was obtained for the determination of uterine cytology on D21. Blood samples were taken from the dams two weeks before parturition, one day after parturition (D1) and two weeks after parturition (D14) for gene expression and cortisol and calcium concentration determination. Calves were weighed at birth and subsequently every week until they were 10 weeks of age. A colostrum sample was taken immediately after calving and stored for subsequent Immunoglobin G (IgG) concentration analysis. Data were analysed using ANOVA with posthoc Tukey, Spearman correlation and stepwise backwards linear regression using SAS. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was performed on the following immune genes: Interleukins IL1a and b, IL2, IL4, IL8, Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon-gamma, Lymphotoxin, Toll-Like Receptor, Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1 and 2, glucocorticoid receptor alpha, as well as the neutrophil genes that regulate inflammation: Fas, L-selectin, MMP-9 and BPI. The results show that compared with non-induced contemporaries, induction has no negative effect on dystocia or subsequent calf weight gain but can have a positive effect on colostral IgG concentration. Blood calcium concentrations on both D1 and D14 postcalving are associated with subsequent uterine health. Parturition events were reflected in temporal changes in the expression of the cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL1b, IL4, IL8 and Haptoglobin in the dams’ blood, all of which are associated with the immune competence of the cow during this period. The conclusion is that induction of calving can have a positive effect on colostral IgG concentration. Calcium concentrations postcalving are associated with subsequent reproductive tract health. Events associated with the peri- and postpartum period are all reflected in temporal changes in immune function-related cytokines.
    • Quantifying MCPA load pathways at catchment scale using high temporal resolution data

      Atcheson, Kevin; Mellander, Per-Erik; Cassidy, Rachel; Cook, Sally; Floyd, Stewart; McRoberts, Colin; Morton, Phoebe A.; Jordan, Phil; Department for the Economy (Northern Ireland); European Union (Elsevier, 2022-07-15)
      Detection of the agricultural acid herbicide MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in drinking water source catchments is of growing concern, with economic and environmental implications for water utilities and wider ecosystem services. MCPA is poorly adsorbed to soil and highly mobile in water, but hydrological pathway processes are relatively unknown at the catchment scale and limited by coarse resolution data. This understanding is required to target mitigation measures and to provide a framework to monitor their effectiveness. To address this knowledge gap, this study reports findings from river discharge and synchronous MCPA concentration datasets (continuous 7 hour and with additional hourly sampling during storm events) collected over a 7 month herbicide spraying season. The study was undertaken in a surface (source) water catchment (384 km2—of which 154 km2 is agricultural land use) in the cross-border area of Ireland. Combined into loads, and using two pathway separation techniques, the MCPA data were apportioned into event and baseload components and the former was further separated to quantify a quickflow (QF) and other event pathways. Based on the 7 hourly dataset, 85.2 kg (0.22 kg km−2 by catchment area, or 0.55 kg km−2 by agricultural area) of MCPA was exported from the catchment in 7 months. Of this load, 87.7 % was transported via event flow pathways with 72.0 % transported via surface dominated (QF) pathways. Approximately 12 % of the MCPA load was transported via deep baseflows, indicating a persistence in this delayed pathway, and this was the primary pathway condition monitored in a weekly regulatory sampling programme. However, overall, the data indicated a dominant acute, storm dependent process of incidental MCPA loss during the spraying season. Reducing use and/or implementing extensive surface pathway disconnection measures are the mitigation options with greatest potential, the success of which can only be assessed using high temporal resolution monitoring techniques.
    • Grassland legacy effects on yield of a follow-on crop in rotation strongly influenced by legume proportion and moderately by drought

      Grange, Guylain; Brophy, Caroline; Finn, John; Science Foundation Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship; 19/FFP/6888 (Elsevier, 2022-08-31)
      We investigated the degree to which plant species diversity, drought and fertiliser level in a grassland ley can affect performance of a follow-on crop in a rotation. Grassland species and functional group diversity (grasses, legumes and herbs) were manipulated from monocultures to six-species mixtures in the grassland ley phase. A simulated two-month summer drought treatment was compared to a ‘rainfed’ control. Plots received 150 kg ha−1 yr−1 of nitrogen (N) fertiliser; additional replicates of L. perenne monoculture received 300 kg ha−1 yr−1 of N fertiliser. After two years, grassland communities were terminated, and each plot reseeded with an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) model crop; its yield indicated the relative legacy effect of the preceding treatments (plant diversity, drought, N input). There was a modest but constant negative effect of drought on dry matter (−0.36 ± 0.091 t ha−1) and nitrogen yield (DMY and NY respectively) of the subsequent crop of L. multiflorum, across all plant communities. There were strong differences among the identity effects of the six former grassland species on DMY and NY of L. multiflorum. Legume species had the strongest effects on DMY of L. multiflorum (6.09 t ha−1 for the former T. pratense monoculture and 6.54 t ha−1 for T. repens). The lowest crop yield was from the former low-diversity high-input replicates (4.16 t ha−1 for former L. perenne monoculture with 300 kg ha−1 yr−1). There was no evidence that interspecific interactions in the grassland phase affected yield of the follow-on crop. Thus, the legacy effect of grassland mixtures was estimated by the identities and proportions of the species sown in the mixture. Similar patterns were obtained for NY. High-diversity, low-input grassland yielded more DMY and NY than low-diversity, high-input grassland (across both ley and follow-on crop phases). However, a legume proportion in the grassland ley of at least 33% is required to achieve high forage and crop performance in a grassland-crop rotation.
    • Biomass and nutrient dynamics of major green tides in Ireland: Implications for biomonitoring

      Bermejo, Ricardo; Golden, Nessa; Schrofner, Elena; Knöller, Kay; Fenton, Owen; Serrão, Ester; Morrison, Liam; Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland; Department of Economy, Knowledge, Business and University of the Regional Government of Andalusia; 2014-2020 ERDF Operational Programme; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-02-28)
      The control of macroalgal bloom development is central for protecting estuarine ecosystems. The identification of the nutrients limiting the development of macroalgal blooms, and their most likely sources is crucial for management strategies. Three Irish estuaries (Argideen, Clonakilty and Tolka) affected by green tides were monitored from June 2016 to August 2017. During each sampling occasion, biomass abundances, tissue N and P contents, and δ15N were determined for tubular and laminar morphologies of Ulva. All estuaries showed maximum biomass during summer and minimum during winter. Tissue nutrient contents revealed P rather than N limitation. The δ15N during the peak bloom indicated agriculture as the most likely source of nitrogen in the Argideen and Clonakilty, and urban wastewaters in the Tolka. No differences in the δ15N, and the tissue nutrients content were observed between morphologies. The period between May and July is most suitable for bioassessment of green tides.
    • Internal teat sealants alone or in combination with antibiotics at dry-off – the effect on udder health in dairy cows in five commercial herds

      Clabby, C.; McParland, Sinead; Dillon, Pat; Arkins, S.; Flynn, J.; Murphy, J.; Silva Boloña, P.; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship (Elsevier, 2022)
      In the dairy industry, the dry period has been identified as an area for potential reduction in antibiotic use, as part of a one health approach to preserve antibiotic medicines for human health. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of dry cow treatment on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI) and milk yield on five commercial Irish dairy herds. A total of 842 cows across five spring calving dairy herds with a monthly bulk tank SCC of < 200 000 cells/mL were recruited for this study. At dry-off, cows which had not exceeded 200 000 cells/mL in the previous lactation were assigned one of two dry-off treatments: internal teat seal (ITS) alone (Lo_TS) or antibiotic plus ITS (Lo_AB + TS). Cows which exceeded 200 000 cells/mL in the previous lactation were treated with antibiotic plus ITS and included in the analysis as a separate group (Hi_AB + TS). Test-day SCC and lactation milk yield records were provided by the herd owners. Quarter milk samples were collected at dry-off, after calving and at mid-lactation for bacteriological culture and quarter SCC analysis. Cow level SCC was available for 789 cows and was log-transformed for the purpose of analysis. Overall, the log SCC of the cows in the Lo_TS group was significantly higher than the cows in Lo_AB + TS group and not statistically different to the cows in the Hi_AB + TS group in the subsequent lactation. However, the response to treatment differed according to the herd studied; the log SCC of the cows in the Lo_TS group in Herds 3, 4 and 5 was not statistically different to the cows in Lo_AB + TS group, whereas in the other two herds, the log SCC was significantly higher in the Lo_TS when compared to the Lo_AB + TS group. There was a significant interaction between dry-off group and herds on SCC and odds of infection in the subsequent lactation. The results of this study suggest that the herd prevalence of IMI may be useful in decision-making regarding the treatment of cows with ITS alone at dry-off to mitigate its impact on udder health.
    • Tannin-rich extracts improve the performance of amidated pectin as an alternative microencapsulation matrix to alginate

      Molino, Silvia; Rufián Henares, José Ángel; Gómez Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura; Teagasc; European Research Commission; University of Granada; N 816303 (Elsevier, 2022-12-31)
      Microencapsulation of tannin extracts through extrusion-gelation method was performed comparing two alternative encapsulation matrices: alginate and amidated pectin. The microstructure of the generated microbeads was studied, as well as their microencapsulation efficiency and release properties. Overall, pectin-based beads performed better than their alginate-based counterparts. This, combined with a greater incorporation of tannins in the feed formulations led to a higher tannin load in the final beads. The best microencapsulation efficiency was given by pectin microbeads loaded with 10% tannin extract (w/w), but the final tannin content could be further increased by adding a 20% (w/w) concentration of the extracts. During a 14-days storage, only a marginal loss of tannins was recorded for pectin-based microbeads. The results reveal that great potential exists in producing pectin-based microbeads in presence of tannins, which allow better loading capacities and improving structural properties, thanks to the interactions between the tannins and the amidated polysaccharide.
    • Modelling the production, profit, and greenhouse gas emissions of Irish sheep flocks divergent in genetic merit

      Farrell, L.; Herron, J.; Pabiou, T.; McHugh, Noirin; McDermott, K.; Shalloo, Laurence; O'Brien, D.; Bohan, A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 17/S/235; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-08-31)
      CONTEXTSheep production industries face the challenge of increasing farm production and profit while reducing environmental impacts. OBJECTIVESGenetic selection using multi-trait breeding indices can be used to improve flock productivity, profitability, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensities (kg CO2-eq /kg of product), however validation of the improved performance of animals ranked higher on breeding indices at a flock level is required. METHODSPhenotypic data from 387,580 production records of animals born between 2018 and 2020 of known genetic merit in commercial flocks were inputted to an established bio-economic model. Two contrasting flocks were compared, a flock of ewes ranked High (top 20%) on the Irish replacement Index bred with rams ranked High on the replacement and terminal indices, and a flock of ewes ranked Low (bottom 20%) on the Irish replacement Index bred with rams ranked Low on the replacement and terminal indices. The two flocks were then simulated using life cycle assessment to estimate the GHG emissions profile for both systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONFlock weaning rates were 1.70 and 1.53 lambs weaned per ewe presented for breeding for the High and Low genetic merit flocks, respectively. The flock of High genetic merit ewes sold 0.17 more lambs per ewe, equating to 3.29 kg more lamb carcass per ewe, than the flock of Low genetic merit ewes; lambs from the High genetic merit flock were also sold at an earlier age. The greater production of the High genetic merit flocks resulted in an additional €18/ewe net profit than the Low genetic merit flock. Although total flock GHG emissions were higher for the High genetic merit flock, GHG emissions intensities were lower at 21.7 and 23.3 kg CO2-eq /kg lamb carcass sold for the High and Low genetic merit flocks, respectively. The lower emissions intensity of the High genetic merit flock was due to the dilution effect of higher lamb production and lambs being drafted for slaughter ealier. SIGNIFICANCEThe results suggest Irish sheep producers can make substantial profit gains through selection according to the national breeding indices while also reducing their environmental impact, and farmers should consider genetic merit when purchasing their rams, particularly sires of replacement ewe lambs.
    • High-Pressure Processing on Whole and Peeled Potatoes: Influence on Polyphenol Oxidase, Antioxidants, and Glycaemic Indices

      Tsikrika, Konstantina; Muldoon, Aine; O'Brien, Nora, M.; Rai, Dilip; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 17/F/299 (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-10-13)
      Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inactivation in five whole and peeled Irish potato cultivars was investigated using high-pressure processing (HPP) at 400 MPa and 600 MPa for 3 min. PPO activity was significantly lower in most of the HPP-treated samples, while the highest PPO inactivation was observed after HPP at 600 MPa. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of all the HPP-treated potatoes. Regarding individual phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all studied varieties with a concomitant increase (p < 0.05) in caffeic and quinic acid. Similarly, ferulic acid was also increased (p < 0.05) in all studied varieties after the HPP treatment, while there was a variation in rutin and 4-coumaric acid levels depending on the cultivar and the sample type. Anthocyanins in the coloured whole potato varieties (i.e., Kerr’s Pink and Rooster), tentatively identified as pelargonidin-O-ferulorylrutinoside-O-hexoside and pelargonidin-O-rutinoside-O-hexoside, also exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels in the HPP-treated samples as opposed to those untreated. Glycaemic indices of the potatoes treated with HPP did not differ with the corresponding untreated cultivars.
    • Migration of Cefquinome Antibiotic Residues from Milk to Dairy Products

      Di Rocco, Melissa; Scollard, Jonathan; Sayers, Riona; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin; Jordan, Kieran; Lourenco, Antonio; Department of Agriculture, Food, and the Marine; 13/F/484 (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-11-19)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of cefquinome in different dairy products during the processing of naturally contaminated milk or spiked milk. The analysis of cefquinome residues in milk, skimmed milk, buttermilk, whey, cream, butter, curd, and cheese samples was performed using a water:acetonitrile solvent extraction and C18 dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up, followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) determination. The target concentration of cefquinome was achieved in the spiked milk (100 µg kg−1). During its processing, the antibiotic migrated primarily with the skimmed milk as opposed to cream (ratios of 3.6:1 and 2.8:1 for experiments A and B, respectively), and with the buttermilk during butter manufacture (ratios of 6.9:1 and 4.6:1), but was equal in the curd and whey during the manufacture of cheese. In the milk collected from treated animals, the measured concentration of cefquinome was considerably high (approx. 5000 µg kg−1). The results obtained from the dairy products were similar to those obtained in the spiked study (ratios of 8.2:1 and 3.1:1 for experiments A and B, respectively, during the separation of skimmed milk and cream; 6.0:1 and 5.0:1 for A and B, respectively, during the separation of buttermilk and butter). However, during cheesemaking, cefquinome migrated with the whey after cutting the curd, with ratios of 0.54:1 and 0.44:1 for experiments A and B, respectively. The difference in the migration of cefquinome between curd and whey in spiked and animal studies is probably due to the different concentration levels in the two different experiments. The results of this study showed that, in dairy products manufactured from milk containing cefquinome residues, the drug migrated primarily with the high-water-containing fractions.
    • Rehydration Properties of Whey Protein Isolate Powders Containing Nanoparticulated Proteins

      Guralnick, Jacob R.; Panthi, Ram R.; Cenini, Valeria L.; Mishra, Vinay S. N.; O’Hagan, Barry M. G.; Crowley, Shane V.; O’Mahony, James A.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs in Northern Ireland; DAIRYDRY 15-F-679 (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-10-27)
      The rehydration properties of original whey protein isolate (WPIC) powder and spray-dried WPI prepared from either unheated (WPIUH) or nanoparticulated WPI solutions were investigated. Nanoparticulation of whey proteins was achieved by subjecting reconstituted WPIC solutions (10% protein, w/w, pH 7.0) to heat treatment at 90 °C for 30 s with no added calcium (WPIH) or with 2.5 mM added calcium (WPIHCa). Powder surface nanostructure and elemental composition were investigated using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, followed by dynamic visualisation of wetting and dissolution characteristics using environmental scanning electron microscopy. The surface of powder particles for both WPIUH and WPIC samples generally appeared smooth, while WPIH and WPIHCa displayed micro-wrinkles with more significant deposition of nitrogen and calcium elements. WPIH and WPIHCa exhibited lower wettability and solubility performance than WPIUH and WPIC during microscopic observation. This study demonstrated that heat-induced aggregation of whey proteins, in the presence or absence of added calcium, before drying increases aggregate size, alters the powder surface properties, consequently impairing their wetting characteristics. This study also developed a fundamental understanding of WPI powder obtained from nanoparticulated whey proteins, which could be applied for the development of functional whey-based ingredients in food formulations, such as nanospacers to modulate protein–protein interactions in dairy concentrates.
    • Changes to the Oligosaccharide Profile of Bovine Milk at the Onset of Lactation

      Quinn, Erin M.; O'Callaghan, Tom F.; T. Tobin, John; Murphy, John Paul; Sugrue, Katie; Slattery, Helen; O'Donovan, Michael; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020-12-01)
      Numerous bioactive components exist in human milk including free oligosaccharides, which represent some of the most important, and provide numerous health benefits to the neonate. Considering the demonstrated value of these compounds, much interest lies in characterising structurally similar oligosaccharides in the dairy industry. In this study, the impacts of days post-parturition and parity of the cows on the oligosaccharide and lactose profiles of their milk were evaluated. Colostrum and milk samples were obtained from 18 cows 1–5 days after parturition. Three distinct phases were identified using multivariate analysis: colostrum (day 0), transitional milk (days 1–2) and mature milk (days 3–5). LS-tetrasaccharide c, lacto-N-neotetraose, disialyllacto-N-tetraose, 3’-sial-N-acetyllactosamine, 3’-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neohexaose and disialyllactose were found to be highly affiliated with colostrum. Notably, levels of lactose were at their lowest concentration in the colostrum and substantially increased 1-day post-parturition. The cow’s parity was also shown to have a significant effect on the oligosaccharide profile, with first lactation cows containing more disialyllacto-N-tetraose, 6’-sialyllactose and LS-tetrasaccharide compared to cows in their second or third parity. Overall, this study identifies key changes in oligosaccharide and lactose content that clearly distinguish colostrum from transitional and mature milk and may facilitate the collection of specific streams with divergent biological functions.
    • Quantification of cow milk yield and pre-weaning calf growth response in temperate pasture-based beef suckler systems: A meta-analysis

      Sapkota, D.; Kelly, A. K.; Crosson, Paul; White, R.R.; McGee, Mark; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme (Elsevier, 2020-11-30)
      The objectives of this study were to quantitatively summarize factors associated with cow milk yield (MY) and calf growth response in pasture-based beef cow-calf suckler systems and to discern how cow genotype and parity influenced these responses. A dataset of 344 treatment mean observations was compiled from 69 studies that reported data on cow MY, and calf pre-weaning average daily live weight gain (ADG) and/or weaning weight (WW). Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models with study and region included as random effects. Models were developed for cow MY, calf ADG and WW response and each model was evaluated based on different model fit statistics. The final cow MY model included cow origin (Dairybeef or Beef), cow maturity (early-maturing (EM) or late-maturing (LM) genotypes) and parity. Dairybeef produced 35.4% more milk (8.64 vs. 6.38 kg/day) than Beef cows, and LM produced 20.9% more milk (8.20 vs. 6.78 kg/day) than EM genotypes (P < 0.001). Multiparous cows had a 14.8% higher MY (8.11 vs. 7.06 kg/day) compared to primiparous cows (P < 0.001). Lactation curve persistency was better (P < 0.05) for Beef and EM compared to Dairybeef and LM genotype cows, respectively. The final models of calf ADG and WW included cow origin, cow maturity and parity. Calves from Dairybeef and LM cows were 14 and 20 kg heavier (P < 0.001) at weaning (210-day adjusted) compared to those from Beef and EM genotype cows, respectively. Calves from multiparous cows were 13 kg heavier at weaning than those from primiparous cows (P < 0.001). The response in calf ADG associated with a 1 kg increase in cow daily MY was 47 and 53 g for Dairybeef and Beef cows, respectively (P < 0.001). Corresponding responses for EM and LM cows were 51 and 55 g (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the relationships between cow MY and calf pre-weaning growth, as well as the quantitative impact of cow genotype and parity were determined for pasture-based beef suckler systems; the coefficients generated can be used for improving beef cow-calf management strategies, beef cattle breeding programmes and bio-economic modelling purposes.
    • Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG soluble mediators ameliorate early life stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and changes in spinal cord gene expression

      McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Strain, Conall R.; Pusceddu, Matteo M.; Waworuntu, Rosaline V.; Manurung, Sarmauli; Gross, Gabriele; M. Moloney, Gerry; Hoban, Alan E.; Murphy, Kiera; STANTON, CATHERINE; et al. (Portland Press Ltd., 2020-11-23)
      Visceral hypersensitivity is a hallmark of many functional and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders, and there is growing evidence that the gut microbiota may play a role in its pathophysiology. It has previously been shown that early life stress-induced visceral sensitivity is reduced by various probiotic strains of bacteria (including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)) alone or in combination with prebiotic fibres in rat models. However, the exact mechanisms underpinning such effects remain unresolved. Here, we investigated if soluble mediators derived from LGG can mimic the bacteria’s effects on visceral hypersensitivity and the microbiota–gut–brain axis. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (MS) from postnatal days 2–12. From weaning onwards both non-separated (NS) and MS offspring were provided drinking water with or without supplementation of standardized preparations of the LGG soluble mediators (LSM). Our results show that MS led to increased visceral sensitivity and exaggerated corticosterone plasma levels following restraint stress in adulthood, and both of these effects were ameliorated through LSM supplementation. Differential regulation of various genes in the spinal cord of MS versus NS rats was observed, 41 of which were reversed by LSM supplementation. At the microbiota composition level MS led to changes in beta diversity and abundance of specific bacteria including parabacteroides, which were ameliorated by LSM. These findings support probiotic soluble mediators as potential interventions in the reduction of symptoms of visceral hypersensitivity.
    • The gut microbiome influences the bioavailability of olanzapine in rats

      Cussotto, Sofia; Walsh, Jacinta; Golubeva, Anna V.; Zhdanov, Alexander V.; Strain, Conall R.; Fouhy, Fiona; STANTON, CATHERINE; Dinan, Timothy G.; Hyland, Niall P.; Clarke, Gerard; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-03-11)
      Background: The role of the gut microbiome in the biotransformation of drugs has recently come under scrutiny. It remains unclear whether the gut microbiome directly influences the extent of drug absorbed after oral administration and thus potentially alters clinical pharmacokinetics. Methods: In this study, we evaluated whether changes in the gut microbiota of male Sprague Dawley rats, as a result of either antibiotic or probiotic administration, influenced the oral bioavailability of two commonly prescribed antipsychotics, olanzapine and risperidone. Findings: The bioavailability of olanzapine, was significantly increased (1.8-fold) in rats that had undergone antibiotic-induced depletion of gut microbiota, whereas the bioavailability of risperidone was unchanged. There was no direct effect of microbiota depletion on the expression of major CYP450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of either drug. However, the expression of UGT1A3 in the duodenum was significantly downregulated. The reduction in faecal enzymatic activity, observed during and after antibiotic administration, did not alter the ex vivo metabolism of olanzapine or risperidone. The relative abundance of Alistipes significantly correlated with the AUC of olanzapine but not risperidone. Interpretation: Alistipes may play a role in the observed alterations in olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The gut microbiome might be an important variable determining the systemic bioavailability of orally administered olanzapine. Additional research exploring the potential implication of the gut microbiota on the clinical pharmacokinetics of olanzapine in humans is warranted.
    • Cow- and herd-level risk factors for lameness in partly housed pasture-based dairy cows

      Browne, N.; Hudson, C.D.; Crossley, R.E.; Sugrue, K; Kennedy, E.; Huxley, J.N.; Conneely, Muireann; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship (Elsevier, 2021-10-02)
      Lameness in dairy cows is a major animal welfare concern and has substantial economic impact through reduced production and fertility. Previous risk factor analyses have focused on housed systems, rather than those where cows were grazed for the majority of the year and housed only for the winter period. Therefore, the aim of this observational study was to identify a robust set of cow-level and herd-level risk factors for lameness in a pasture-based system, based on predictors from the housing and grazing periods. Ninety-nine farms were visited during the grazing period (April 2019–September 2019), and 85 farms were revisited during the housing period (October 2019–February 2020). At each visit, all lactating cows were scored for lameness (0 = good mobility, 1 = imperfect mobility, 2 = impaired mobility, 3 = severely impaired mobility), and potential herd-level risk factors were recorded through questionnaires and infrastructure measurements. Routine cow-level management data were also collected. Important risk factors for lameness were derived though triangulation of results from elastic net regression, and from logistic regression model selection using modified Bayesian information criterion. Both selection methods were implemented using bootstrapping. This novel approach has not previously been used in a cow-level or herd-level risk factor analysis in dairy cows, to the authors' knowledge. The binary outcome variable was lameness status, whereby cows with a lameness score of 0 or 1 were classed as non-lame and cows with a score of 2 or 3 were classed as lame. Cow-level risk factors for increased lameness prevalence were age and genetic predicted transmitting ability for lameness. Herd-level risk factors included farm and herd size, stones in paddock gateways, slats on cow tracks near the collecting yard, a sharper turn at the parlor exit, presence of digital dermatitis on the farm, and the farmers' perception of whether lameness was a problem on the farm. This large-scale study identified the most important associations between risk factors and lameness, based on the entire year (grazing and housing periods), providing a focus for future randomized clinical trials.
    • Effect of feeding single-dam or pooled colostrum on maternally derived immunity in dairy calves

      Barry, J.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Sayers, Riona; Murphy, J.P.; de Boer, I.J.M.; Kennedy, E.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship (Elsevier, 2021-08-26)
      The role of colostrum management in providing adequate immunological protection to neonatal calves has been widely investigated, and thresholds for colostrum quality, as well as optimum volume and timing for colostrum feeding have been established. However, limited information is available on the effect of colostrum source (single dam or pooled) on passive immunity, as well as subsequent antibody survival in the calf. This study aimed to assess the effect of feeding single-dam colostrum (own and other dam) or pooled colostrum on transfer of passive immunity, and also investigate the rate of depletion of disease-specific antibodies among dairy calves. In total, 320 cows and 119 dairy heifer calves were enrolled in the study. Calves were blood-sampled immediately after birth and received either own-dam, other-dam, or pooled colostrum. Calves were blood-sampled at 24 h to assess serum IgG concentrations and at monthly intervals thereafter to document disease-specific antibody survival. Mean colostrum IgG concentration was higher for other-dam treatment group, whereas own-dam and pooled treatments were similar. For all treatment groups, the mean IgG concentration was >80 mg/mL, exceeding the quality threshold of 50 mg/mL. Mean calf serum IgG concentration was lower for calves fed pooled colostrum compared with those that received colostrum from a single cow. There was a negative association with 24-h serum IgG and calf birth bodyweight; calves <30 kg at birth had the highest 24-h serum IgG concentration. Survival of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea, Salmonella infection, leptospirosis, bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytical virus, rotavirus, and coronavirus was not associated with colostrum source; however, antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis had a greater period of survival among calves fed own-dam colostrum. We found that feeding single-dam colostrum can thus improve calf immunity through increased serum IgG levels and antibody survival rates. Furthermore, we hypothesize that immune exclusion may occur with pooled colostrum; therefore, providing pooled colostrum may still be a good practice as long as it can be ensured that enough antibodies are absorbed into the blood stream to deal with pathogens calves may encounter because different dams may have antibodies against different strains of viruses and bacteria, yielding cross protection.
    • Shared and non-shared sIgA-coated and uncoated bacteria in intestine of mother-infant pairs

      Ding, Mengfan; Chen, Haiqin; Yu, Renqiang; Ross, R. Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wei; National Key R&D Program of China; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Research Square Platform LLC, 2022-04-20)
      Background The infant gut microbiota is critical for promoting and maintaining early life health. Bacteria coated by secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) may help commensal bacteria colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The study aimed to analyze the composition of sIgA-coated and sIgA-uncoated bacterial communities at genus level, and lactobacilli and bifidobacterial communities at species level in human breast milk (HBM), infant, and maternal feces. Results Eleven pregnant women were recruited successfully. HBM, infant feces during colostrum, transition, and mature stages, and maternal feces within the mature stage were collected. sIgA-coated and sIgAuncoated bacteria were separated with magnetic-activated cell sorting. Then 16S rRNA sequencing, bifidobacterial groEL gene sequencing, and lactobacilli groEL gene sequencing were performed to analyze the bacterial community. The richness of sIgA-coated bacteria was significantly higher than that of sIgA-uncoated bacteria in HBM. PCoA revealed that the compositions of sIgA-coated and sIgAuncoated bacteria were different among HBM, infant and maternal feces. The dominant sIgA-coated bacteria in those samples were Escherichia/shigella and the dominant sIgA-uncoated bacteria was Pseudomonas. Higher relative abundance of sIgA-uncoated Bifidobacterium was found in the three lactation stages in infant feces compared to the corresponding HBM, and a higher relative abundance of sIgA-uncoated Faecalibacterium was found in maternal feces compared to HBM and infant feces. For the bifidobacterial community, PCoA analysis revealed a significantly different Bifidobacterium composition only in the sIgA-uncoated segments of infant feces and maternal feces. sIgA-coated and sIgA-uncoated B. longum subsp. infantis and B. pseudocatenulatum was dominant in infant feces and maternal feces, respectively. Additionally, the relative abundance of sIgA-uncoated B. longum subsp. infantis was significantly higher in infant feces compared to that in maternal feces. For the Lactobacillus community, the composition was significantly different in infant and maternal feces, while at species level, L. paragasseri and L. mucosae were dominant in infant and maternal feces, respectively. Conclusion HBM, infant, and maternal feces showed distinct diversity and composition of both sIgA-coated and sIgAuncoated bacteria at genus level. Infant and maternal feces showed similar diversity and similar composition of Bifidobacterium at species level. The same Bifidobacterium species could be detected both in sIgA-coated and sIgA-uncoated form
    • Bifidobacterium longum counters the effects of obesity: Partial successful translation from rodent to human

      Schellekens, Harriët; Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; van de Wouw, Marcel; Long-Smith, Caitriona M.; Mitchell, Avery; Strain, Conall; Berding, Kirsten; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz, F. S.; Rea, Kieran; Golubeva, Anna V.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-31)
      BackgroundThe human gut microbiota has emerged as a key factor in the development of obesity. Certain probiotic strains have shown anti-obesity effects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Bifidobacterium longum APC1472 has anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and whether B. longum APC1472 supplementation reduces body-mass index (BMI) in healthy overweight/obese individuals as the primary outcome. B. longum APC1472 effects on waist-to-hip ratio (W/H ratio) and on obesity-associated plasma biomarkers were analysed as secondary outcomes. MethodsB. longum APC1472 was administered to HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice in drinking water for 16 weeks. In the human intervention trial, participants received B. longum APC1472 or placebo supplementation for 12 weeks, during which primary and secondary outcomes were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. FindingsB. longum APC1472 supplementation was associated with decreased bodyweight, fat depots accumulation and increased glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. While, in healthy overweight/obese adults, the supplementation of B. longum APC1472 strain did not change primary outcomes of BMI (0.03, 95% CI [-0.4, 0.3]) or W/H ratio (0.003, 95% CI [-0.01, 0.01]), a positive effect on the secondary outcome of fasting blood glucose levels was found (-0.299, 95% CI [-0.44, -0.09]). InterpretationThis study shows a positive translational effect of B. longum APC1472 on fasting blood glucose from a preclinical mouse model of obesity to a human intervention study in otherwise healthy overweight and obese individuals. This highlights the promising potential of B. longum APC1472 to be developed as a valuable supplement in reducing specific markers of obesity. FundingThis research was funded in part by Science Foundation Ireland in the form of a Research Centre grant (SFI/12/RC/2273) to APC Microbiome Ireland and by a research grant from Cremo S.A.
    • Comparison of lactose free and traditional mozzarella cheese during shelf-life by aroma compounds and sensory analysis

      Condurso, Concetta; Tripodi, Gianluca; Merlino, Maria; Prestia, Ottavia; STANTON, CATHERINE; Verzera, Antonella; Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research; AIM 1823923-3 - CUP J44I18000190006 (Elsevier, 2021-04-30)
      Aroma compounds and sensory features of lactose free (LFM) and traditional (TM) Mozzarella cheese have been investigated during their labeled shelf-life. Acetoin and 2-heptanone characterized both types of cheese at the production time. During the shelf-life, a statistically significant increase in the amount of the volatiles coming from amino acid and fatty acid metabolism occurred in the LFM samples after 8 days of storage and, to a lesser extent, in TM cheese after 13 days of storage. As regard sensory analysis, milk odor and milk flavor descriptors characterized TM and LFM in the early stage of their shelf-life; bitter and acid taste and yoghurt odor descriptors characterized LFM after 8 days and TM after 13 days. The differences between the two cheese types can be attributed to the proteolytic activity of the lactase enzyme. As a result, the volatile aroma profile and the sensory quality should be taken into account for a proper shelf-life definition of Mozzarella cheese and a shorter shelf-life should be suggested for LFM than TM cheese.
    • Financial benchmarking on dairy farms: Exploring the relationship between frequency of use and farm performance

      Ramsbottom, George; Läpple, D.; Pierce, K. M. (Elsevier, 2021-03-31)
      The importance of financial benchmarking has increased in recent years as European Union milk quota abolition has facilitated rapid change in the dairy sector. This study evaluates the association between usage frequency of a financial benchmarking tool [Profit Monitor (PM)] and farm changes on spring-calving pasture-based dairy farms. To this end, physical and financial data for 5,945 dairy farms, representing 20,132 farm years, for the years 2010 to 2018 were used. Farms were categorized by frequency of annual financial benchmarking over the 9-yr period into frequent PM users (7–9 yr), infrequent PM users (4–6 yr), low PM users (1–3 yr), and nonusers. We use a mixed model framework and econometric models to characterize farms and to explore characteristics and determinants of economic performance and user groups. The most frequent users of the financial benchmarking tool had the greatest increase in intensification (measured by change in farm stocking rate), productivity (measured by change in milk production per hectare), and financial performance (measured by change in farm gross output and net profit per hectare) across the study period. Infrequent and low PM users of the benchmarking tool were intermediate for all variables measured, whereas nonusers had the least change. Empirical results indicated that economic performance was positively associated with dairy specialization and pasture utilization for all groups. Despite considerable fluctuations over the observation period, the overall change in total farm net profit between 2010 and 2018 was greatest for the frequent PM users (an increase of 70%, or €37,639), followed by farms in the infrequent PM user category (a 71% increase corresponding to an increase of €28,008 in net profit); meanwhile, low PM user and nonuser categories showed increases of 69% (€26,270) and 42% (€10,977), respectively. The results of this study also clearly indicated the existence of a strong positive association between frequency of financial benchmarking and greater technical and financial efficiency. The econometric analysis revealed that financial benchmarking users are more likely than nonusers to have larger herds, and that regional differences exist in usage rates. Finally, the study concludes by suggesting that the development of simplified financial benchmarking technologies and their support are required to increase benchmarking frequency, which may also help to facilitate a more sustainable and resource efficient dairy industry.