Now showing items 21-40 of 1704

    • Identification and control of Cobweb disease on mushrooms

      Grogan, Helen; Gaze, Richard (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), IrelandHorticultural Development Council, 2008)
      This factsheet is a summary of the most important information currently available on Cobweb disease (Cladobotryum spp.). Its objective is to provide guidance on the recognition, prevention and control of the disease.
    • Effects of fertiliser nitrogen rate to spring grass on apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance, ruminal fermentation and microbial nitrogen production in beef cattle and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane output

      O'Connor, Alan; Moloney, Aidan P.; O'Kiely, Padraig; Boland, T. M.; McGee, Mark; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/S/105 (Elsevier, 2019-06-06)
      The effects of two fertiliser nitrogen (N) application rates - 15 (LN) or 80 (HN) kg N/ha - to Lolium perenne dominant swards in spring, on grass dry matter (DM) intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, microbial N production and N-balance in beef cattle, and in vitro fermentation and methane production were studied. Sixteen Charolais steers with a mean live weight (s.d.) of 475 (18.4) kg, were used in a completely randomised block design experiment and offered zero-grazed grass harvested 21-d post N application. The same grass was incubated in an eight-vessel RUSITEC in a completely randomised block design experiment. The HN treatment had a 540 kg/ha higher grass DM yield, and a 20 g/kg DM higher crude protein (CP) concentration compared to LN. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in DM intake, or in vivo DM, organic matter (OM) and N digestibility between treatments. Rumen fermentation variables pH, lactic acid, ammonia (NH3) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration were similar (P > 0.05) for both treatments. Nitrogen intake was 19 g/d higher (P < 0.05) for HN compared to LN. Total and urine N loss was 16 and 14 g/d greater (P < 0.05), respectively, for HN compared to LN, but faecal N loss did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatments. The quantity of N retained and N-use efficiency did not differ (P > 0.05) between LN and HN. Plasma urea concentration was 1 mmol/L greater (P < 0.05) for HN compared to LN. Estimated microbial N production was greater (P < 0.05) for HN compared to LN. In vitro NH3 concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for HN compared to LN, whereas in vitro rumen pH, lactic acid and VFA concentrations and molar proportions did not differ (P > 0.05) between HN and LN. In vitro methane and total gas output were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Reducing fertiliser N application rate to grass in spring reduced total and urinary N excretion, which has environmental benefits, with no effects on in vitro methane output.
    • Potential applications for virtual and augmented reality technologies in sensory science

      Crofton, Emily C.; Botinestean, Cristina; Fenelon, Mark A.; Gallagher, Eimear (Elsevier, 2019-06-19)
      Sensory science has advanced significantly in the past decade and is quickly evolving to become a key tool for predicting food product success in the marketplace. Increasingly, sensory data techniques are moving towards more dynamic aspects of sensory perception, taking account of the various stages of user-product interactions. Recent technological advancements in virtual reality and augmented reality have unlocked the potential for new immersive and interactive systems which could be applied as powerful tools for capturing and deciphering the complexities of human sensory perception. This paper reviews recent advancements in virtual and augmented reality technologies and identifies and explores their potential application within the field of sensory science. The paper also considers the possible benefits for the food industry as well as key challenges posed for widespread adoption. The findings indicate that these technologies have the potential to alter the research landscape in sensory science by facilitating promising innovations in five principal areas: consumption context, biometrics, food structure and texture, sensory marketing and augmenting sensory perception. Although the advent of augmented and virtual reality in sensory science offers new exciting developments, the exploitation of these technologies is in its infancy and future research will understand how they can be fully integrated with food and human responses. Industrial relevance: The need for sensory evaluation within the food industry is becoming increasingly complex as companies continuously compete for consumer product acceptance in today's highly innovative and global food environment. Recent technological developments in virtual and augmented reality offer the food industry new opportunities for generating more reliable insights into consumer sensory perceptions of food and beverages, contributing to the design and development of new products with optimised consumer benefits. These technologies also hold significant potential for improving the predictive validity of newly launched products within the marketplace.
    • Effect of high pressure processing on the safety, shelf life and quality of raw milk

      Stratakos, Alexandros Ch.; Inguglia, Elena S.; Linton, Mark; Tollerton, Joan; Murphy, Liam; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Koidis, Anastasios; Tiwari, Brijesh (Elsevier, 2019-01-14)
      High pressure processing (HPP) was investigated as an alternative to standard raw milk processing. Different pressure levels (400–600 MPa) and exposure times (1–5 min) were tested against artificially inoculated pathogenic E. coli, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. HPP effectively inactivated bacterial concentration by 5 log CFU/ml. The most effective HPP conditions in terms of pathogen reduction were subsequently utilised to determine the effect of pressure on microbiological shelf life, particle size and colour of milk during refrigerated storage. Results were compared to pasteurised and raw milk. HPP (600 MPa for 3 min) also significantly reduced the total viable counts, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. in milk thus prolonging the microbiological shelf life of milk by 1 week compared to pasteurised milk. Particle size distribution curves of raw, pasteurised and HPP milk, showed that raw and HPP milk had more similar casein and fat particle sizes compared to pasteurised milk. The results of this study show the possibility of using HPP to eliminate pathogens present in milk while maintaining key quality characteristics similar to those of raw milk.
    • Chronic nutrient inputs affect stream macroinvertebrate communities more than acute inputs: An experiment manipulating phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment

      Davis, Stephen J; O hUallachain, Daire; Mellander, Per-Erik; Matthaei, Christoph; Piggott, Jeremy; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2019-05-07)
      Freshwaters worldwide are affected by multiple stressors. Timing of inputs and pathways of delivery can influence the impact stressors have on freshwater communities. In particular, effects of point versus diffuse nutrient inputs on stream macroinvertebrates are poorly understood. Point-source inputs tend to pose a chronic problem, whereas diffuse inputs tend to be acute with short concentration spikes. We manipulated three key agricultural stressors, phosphorus (ambient, chronic, acute), nitrogen (ambient, chronic, acute) and fine sediment (ambient, high), in 112 stream mesocosms (26 days colonisation, 18 days of manipulations) and determined the individual and combined effects of these stressors on stream macroinvertebrate communities (benthos and drift). Chronic nutrient treatments continuously received high concentrations of P and/or N. Acute channels received the same continuous enrichment, but concentrations were doubled during two 3-hour periods (day 6, day 13) to simulate acute nutrient inputs during rainstorms. Sediment was the most pervasive stressor in the benthos, reducing total macroinvertebrate abundance and richness, EPT (mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies) abundance and richness. By contrast, N or P enrichment did not affect any of the six studied community-level metrics. In the drift assemblage, enrichment effects became more prevalent the longer the experiment went on. Sediment was the dominant driver of drift responses at the beginning of the experiment. After the first acute nutrient pulse, sediment remained the most influential stressor but its effects started to fade. After the second pulse, N became the dominant stressor. In general, impacts of either N or P on the drift were due to chronic exposure, with acute nutrient pulses having no additional effects. Overall, our findings imply that cost-effective management should focus on mitigating sediment inputs first and tackle chronic nutrient inputs second. Freshwater managers should also take into account the length of exposure to high nutrient concentrations, rather than merely the concentrations themselves.
    • Evaluation of a fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor to monitor acid induced coagulation of skim milk

      Panikuttira, Bhavya; Payne, Frederick A.; O'Shea, Norah; Tobin, John; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Dairy Processing Technology Centre; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier, 2019-05-03)
      A prototype sensor that employs both ultraviolet excited fluorescence and infrared light backscatter was evaluated as an in-line process analytical technology (PAT) tool to monitor acid induced coagulation kinetics of skim milk. Coagulation experiments were carried out at 32 °C using three concentrations of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Measurement of storage modulus (G′) of acidified skim milk gel was used as a reference rheological method to monitor the coagulation kinetics. Prediction models were developed to predict the times required for acidified skim milk coagulum to reach selected G′ values (0.5 Pa, 1 Pa, 5 Pa, 10 Pa and 15 Pa) using time parameters extracted from the ultraviolet excited fluorescence and infrared light backscatter profiles. A strong correlation was observed between the predicted times developed using time parameters extracted from the prototype sensor profiles and the measured G′ times extracted from the rheometer (R2 = 0.97, standard error of prediction = 2.8 min). This study concluded that the prototype fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor investigated combined with the developed rheological prediction model can be used as a potential PAT tool for in-line monitoring of coagulation kinetics in the manufacture of acid induced milk gels. Industrial relevance: The prototype fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor investigated in this study combined with the developed rheological prediction model can be employed to monitor and control coagulation kinetics in a wide range of dairy processing applications including fresh cheese varieties and yoghurt manufacture.
    • How herd best linear unbiased estimates affect the progress achievable from gains in additive and nonadditive genetic merit

      Dunne, F. L.; McParland, Sinead; Kelleher, Margaret M.; Walsh, S.W.; Berry, Donagh P.; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 16/RC/3835 (Elsevier, 2019-04-10)
      Sustainable dairy cow performance relies on coevolution in the development of breeding and management strategies. Tailoring breeding programs to herd performance metrics facilitates improved responses to breeding decisions. Although herd-level raw metrics on performance are useful, implicitly included within such statistics is the mean herd genetic merit. The objective of the present study was to quantify the expected response from selection decisions on additive and nonadditive merit by herd performance metrics independent of herd mean genetic merit. Performance traits considered in the present study were age at first calving, milk yield, calving to first service, number of services, calving interval, and survival. Herd-level best linear unbiased estimates (BLUE) for each performance trait were available on a maximum of 1,059 herds, stratified as best, average, and worst for each performance trait separately. The analyses performed included (1) the estimation of (co)variance for each trait in the 3 BLUE environments and (2) the regression of cow-level phenotypic performance on either the respective estimated breeding value (EBV) or the heterosis coefficient of the cow. A fundamental assumption of genetic evaluations is that 1 unit change in EBV equates to a 1 unit change in the respective phenotype; results from the present study, however, suggest that the realization of the change in phenotypic performance is largely dependent on the herd BLUE for that trait. Herds achieving more yield, on average, than expected from their mean genetic merit, had a 20% greater response to changes in EBV as well as 43% greater genetic standard deviation relative to herds within the worst BLUE for milk yield. Conversely, phenotypic performance in fertility traits (with the exception of calving to first service) tended to have a greater response to selection as well as a greater additive genetic standard deviation within the respective worst herd BLUE environments; this is suggested to be due to animals performing under more challenging environments leading to larger achievable gains. The attempts to exploit nonadditive genetic effects such as heterosis are often the basis of promoting cross-breeding, yet the results from the present study suggest that improvements in phenotypic performance is largely dependent on the environment. The largest gains due to heterotic effects tended to be within the most stressful (i.e., worst) BLUE environment for all traits, thus suggesting the heterosis effects can be beneficial in mitigating against poorer environments.
    • Effect of introducing weather parameters on the accuracy of milk production forecast models

      Zhang, Fan; Upton, John; Shalloo, Laurence; Shine, Philip; Murphy, Michael D. (Elsevier, 2019-04-13)
      The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of adding meteorological data to the training process of two milk production forecast models. The two models chosen were the nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input (NARX) and the multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The accuracy of these models were assessed using seven different combinations of precipitation, sunshine hours and soil temperature as additional model training inputs. Lactation data (daily milk yield and days in milk) from 39 pasture-based Holstein-Friesian Irish dairy cows were selected to compare to the model outputs from a central database. The models were trained using historical milk production data from three lactation cycles and were employed to predict the total daily milk yield of a fourth lactation cycle for each individual cow over short (10-day), medium (30-day) and long-term (305-day) forecast horizons. The NARX model was found to provide a greater prediction accuracy when compared to the MLR model when predicting annual individual cow milk yield (kg), with R2 values greater than 0.7 for 95.5% and 14.7% of total predictions, respectively. The results showed that the introduction of sunshine hours, precipitation and soil temperature data improved the prediction accuracy of individual cow milk prediction for the NARX model in the short, medium and long-term forecast horizons. Sunshine hours was shown to have the largest impact on milk production with an improvement of forecast accuracy observed in 60% and 70% of all predictions (for all 39 test cows from both groups). However, the overall improvement in accuracy was small with a maximum forecast error reduction of 4.3%. Thus, the utilization of meteorological parameters in milk production forecasting did not have a substantial impact on forecast accuracy.
    • Spent Mushroom Compost 'Fertilizer or Fuel'

      Walsh, Gerry (Bord Bia, 2009-05-21)
    • Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices

      Aguilo-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Generalitat of Catalonia; 06TNITAFRC6; et al. (MDPI, 2015-03-02)
      The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100–1500), pulse frequency (10–200 Hz) and pulse width (10–30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.
    • Social network properties predict chronic aggression in commercial pig systems

      Foister, Simone; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; Roehe, Rainer; Arnott, Gareth; Boyle, Laura; Turner, Simon; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Scottish Government; 2015004 (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2018-10-04)
      Post-mixing aggression in pigs is a harmful and costly behaviour which negatively impacts both animal welfare and farm efficiency. There is vast unexplained variation in the amount of acute and chronic aggression that dyadic behaviours do not fully explain. This study hypothesised that certain pen-level network properties may improve prediction of lesion outcomes due to the incorporation of indirect social interactions that are not captured by dyadic traits. Utilising current SNA theory, we investigate whether pen-level network properties affect the number of aggression-related injuries at 24 hours and 3 weeks post-mixing (24hr-PM and 3wk-PM). Furthermore we compare the predictive value of network properties to conventional dyadic traits. A total of 78 pens were video recorded for 24hr post-mixing. Each aggressive interaction that occurred during this time period was used to construct the pen-level networks. The relationships between network properties at 24hr and the pen level injuries at 24hr-PM and 3wk-PM were analysed using mixed models and verified using permutation tests. The results revealed that network properties at 24hr could predict long term aggression (3wk-PM) better than dyadic traits. Specifically, large clique formation in the first 24hr-PM predicted fewer injuries at 3wk-PM and high betweenness centralisation at 24hr-PM predicted increased rates of injury at 3wk-PM. This study demonstrates that network properties present during the first 24hr-PM have predictive value for chronic aggression, and have potential to allow identification and intervention for at risk groups.
    • The genetic architecture of milk ELISA scores as an indicator of Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in dairy cattle

      Brito, Luiz F.; Mallikarjunappa, Sanjay; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Koeck, Astrid; Chesnais, Jacques; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Meade, Kieran G; Miglior, Filippo; Karrow, Niel A.; The Semex Alliance; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-09-13)
      Johne's disease (or paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection, is a globally prevalent disease with severe economic and welfare implications. With no effective treatment available, understanding the role of genetics influencing host infection status is essential to develop selection strategies to breed for increased resistance to MAP infection. The main objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for the MAP-specific antibody response using milk ELISA scores in Canadian Holstein cattle as an indicator of resistance to Johne's disease, and to unravel genomic regions and candidate genes significantly associated with MAP infection. After data editing, 168,987 milk ELISA records from 2,306 herds, obtained from CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement, were used for further analyses. Variance and heritability estimates for MAP infection status were determined using univariate linear animal models under 3 scenarios: (a) SCEN1: the complete data set (all herds); (b) SCEN2: herds with at least one suspect or test-positive animal (ELISA optical density ≥0.07); and (c) SCEN3: herds with at least one test-positive animal (ELISA optical density ≥0.11). Heritability estimates were calculated as 0.066, 0.064, and 0.063 for SCEN1, SCEN2, and SCEN3, respectively. The correlations between estimated breeding values for resistance to MAP infection and other economically important traits, when significant, were favorable and of low magnitude. Genome-wide association analyses identified important genomic regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA)1, BTA7, BTA9, BTA14, BTA15, BTA17, BTA19, and BTA25 showing significant association with MAP infection status. These regions included 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms located 2 kb upstream of positional candidate genes CD86 and WNT9B, which play key roles in host immune response and tissue homeostasis. This study revealed the genetic architecture of MAP infection in Canadian Holstein cattle as measured by milk ELISA scores by estimating genetic parameters along with the identification of genomic regions potentially influencing MAP infection status. These findings will be of significant value toward implementing genetic and genomic evaluations for resistance to MAP infection in Holstein cattle.
    • Genetic selection for hoof health traits and cow mobility scores can accelerate the rate of genetic gain in producer-scored lameness in dairy cows

      Ring, Siobhan C.; Twomey, Alan J.; Byrne, Nicky; Kelleher, Margaret M.; Pabiou, Thierry; Doherty, Michael L.; Berry, Donagh P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (American Dairy Science Association, 2018-09-13)
      Cattle breeding programs that strive to reduce the animal-level incidence of lameness are often hindered by the availability of informative phenotypes. As a result, indicator traits of lameness (i.e., hoof health and morphological conformation scores) can be used to improve the accuracy of selection and subsequent genetic gain. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the variance components for hoof health traits using various phenotypes collected from a representative sample of Irish dairy cows. Also of interest to the present study was the genetic relationship between both hoof health traits and conformation traits with producer-scored lameness. Producer-recorded lameness events and linear conformation scores from 307,657 and 117,859 Irish dairy cows, respectively, were used. Data on hoof health (i.e., overgrown sole, white line disease, and sole hemorrhage), mobility scores, and body condition scores were also available from a research study on up to 11,282 Irish commercial dairy cows. Linear mixed models were used to quantify variance components for each trait and to estimate genetic correlations among traits. The estimated genetic parameters for hoof health traits in the present study were greater (i.e., heritability range: 0.005 to 0.27) than previously reported in dairy cows. With the exception of analyses that considered hoof health traits in repeatability models, little difference in estimated variance components existed among the various hoof-health phenotypes. Results also suggest that producer-recorded lameness is correlated with both hoof health (i.e., genetic correlation up to 0.48) and cow mobility (i.e., genetic correlation = 0.64). Moreover, cows that genetically tend to have rear feet that appear more parallel when viewed from the rear are also genetically more predisposed to lameness (genetic correlation = 0.39); genetic correlations between lameness and other feet and leg type traits, as well as between lameness and frame type traits, were not different from zero. Results suggest that if the population breeding goal was to reduce lameness incidence, improve hoof health, or improve cow mobility, genetic selection for either of these traits should indirectly benefit the other traits. Results were used to quantify the genetic gains achievable for lameness when alternative phenotypes are available.
    • Invited review: Milk lactose—Current status and future challenges in dairy cattle

      Costa, Angela; Lopez-Villalobos, N.; Sneddon, N.W.; Shalloo, Laurence; Franzoi, Marco; de Marchi, M.; Penasa, M.; University of Padova, Italy; DOR1721792/17 (Elsevier, 2019-05-10)
      Lactose is the main carbohydrate in mammals' milk, and it is responsible for the osmotic equilibrium between blood and alveolar lumen in the mammary gland. It is the major bovine milk solid, and its synthesis and concentration in milk are affected mainly by udder health and the cow's energy balance and metabolism. Because this milk compound is related to several biological and physiological factors, information on milk lactose in the literature varies from chemical properties to heritability and genetic associations with health traits that may be exploited for breeding purposes. Moreover, lactose contributes to the energy value of milk and is an important ingredient for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite this, lactose has seldom been included in milk payment systems, and it has never been used as an indicator trait in selection indices. The interest in lactose has increased in recent years, and a summary of existing information about lactose in the dairy sector would be beneficial for the scientific community and the dairy industry. The present review collects and summarizes knowledge about lactose by covering and linking several aspects of this trait in bovine milk. Finally, perspectives on the use of milk lactose in dairy cattle, especially for selection purposes, are outlined.
    • Effect of ultrasound on physicochemical properties of emulsion stabilized by fish myofibrillar protein and xanthan gum

      Xiong, Yao; Li, Qianru; Miao, Song; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Longtao; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; Fujian Provincial Foreign Cooperation Project; Fujian Provincial Science and Technology Program of Regional Development Project; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-04-30)
      To investigate the effects ultrasound (20 kHz, 150–600 W) on physicochemical properties of emulsion stabilized by myofibrillar protein (MP) and xanthan gum (XG), the emulsions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ζ-potential, particle size, rheology, surface tension, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). FT-IR spectra confirmed the complexation of MP and XG, and ultrasound did not change the functional groups in the complexes. The emulsion treated at 300 W showed the best stability, with the lowest particle size, the lowest surface tension (26.7 mNm−1) and the largest ζ-potential absolute value (25.4 mV), that were confirmed in the CLSM photos. Ultrasound reduced the apparent viscosity of the MP-XG emulsions, and the changes of particle size were manifested in flow properties. Generally, ultrasound was successfully applied to improve the physical stability of MP-XG emulsion, which could be used as a novel delivery system for functional material.
    • In vitro digestion of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks with pea protein isolate, rice protein and lentil flour following sous vide processing

      Baugreet, Sephora; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hamill, Ruth M; Brodkorb, Andre; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2019-04-12)
      The effect of plant protein inclusion in cooked meat upon in vitro gastro-intestinal (GI) digestion was investigated. Pea protein isolate, rice protein and lentil flour were used to increase the protein content in a meat model system restructured using two transglutaminase enzymes [Activa®EB (TG) and Transgluseen™-M (TS)]. Restructured beef steaks were subjected to simulated GI digestion using the static INFOGEST method. Samples taken at different digestion times were analysed using SDS-PAGE, size exclusion-HPLC, free amino acid analysis and microscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed significant protein hydrolysis during GI digestion. Most soluble peptides had a molecular weight smaller than 500 Da, corresponding to peptides of <5 amino acids, regardless of food treatment. The amounts of released, free amino acids isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine and valine were higher (P < 0.05) in lentil-enriched restructured beef steaks following GI digestion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) revealed pronounced aggregation in digested samples. In vitro digestates of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks showed lower production of small molecular weight peptides. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks are influenced by formulation and processing.
    • Principles and mechanisms of ultraviolet light emitting diode technology for food industry applications

      Hinds, Laura M.; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Akhter, Mahbub; Tiwari, Brijesh; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14/F/845 (Elsevier, 2019-04-13)
      The application of ultraviolet (UV) light to water, food contact surfaces and medical equipment for microbial inactivation is widely employed. To date, UV disinfection sources employed are primarily low-pressure and medium-pressure mercury lamps; emitting monochromatic and polychromatic light, respectively. Despite the widespread use of mercury lamps, there are multiple drawbacks associated with their use including; high energy consumption, large size which limits reactor design, high heat emission and the presence of mercury. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have potential for use as a highly efficient UV decontamination technology. Recent advances in semiconductor development have resulted in UV-LEDs becoming more widely available. UV-LEDs emit monochromatic light, which enables customised UV-LED disinfection systems at specific wavelengths to be developed. The application of UV-LEDs for disinfection purposes has been studied in recent years, particularly with respect to water disinfections systems. In this review, studies relating to UV-LED food applications are discussed. Furthermore, the chemical changes induced in foods, as a result of UV treatment, together with advantages and limitations of the technology are outlined.
    • Effect of using internal teat sealant with or without antibiotic therapy at dry-off on subsequent somatic cell count and milk production

      McParland, Sinead; Dillon, Pat; Flynn, James; Ryan, N.; Arkins, S.; Kennedy, Aideen E.; Dairy Research Ireland (Elsevier, 2019-03-14)
      The objective of this study was to assess the effect of treating cows with teat sealant only compared with antibiotic plus teat sealant at drying off on weekly somatic cell count, potential intramammary infection, and milk production across the entire subsequent lactation. In 3 research herds in the south of Ireland, cows with SCC that did not exceed 200,000 cells/mL in the previous lactation (LowSCC) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments at drying off: internal teat sealant alone (ITS) or antibiotic plus teat sealant (AB+ITS). Cows with SCC that exceeded 200,000 cells/mL in the previous lactation were treated with AB+ITS and included in the analyses as a separate group (HighSCC). Weekly individual animal composite SCC records were available for 654 cow lactations and were transformed to somatic cell scores (SCS) for the purpose of analysis. Data were divided into 3 data sets to represent records obtained (1) up to 35 DIM, (2) up to 120 DIM, and (3) across the lactation. Foremilk secretions were taken from all quarters at drying off, at calving, 2 wk after calving, and in mid-lactation and were cultured to detect the presence of bacteria. The LowSCC cows treated with ITS alone had higher daily milk yield (0.67 kg/d) across lactation compared with LowSCC cows treated with AB+ITS. The LowSCC cows treated with ITS alone had higher SCS in early, up to mid, and across lactation compared with LowSCC cows treated with AB+ITS. We detected no difference in weekly SCS of LowSCC cows treated with ITS alone and SCS of HighSCC cows. The least squares means back-transformed SCC across lactation of the LowSCC cows treated with ITS alone, LowSCC cows treated with AB+ITS, and HighSCC cows were 41,523, 34,001, and 38,939 cells/mL respectively. The odds of LowSCC cows treated with ITS alone having bacteria present in their foremilk across lactation was 2.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.91 to 3.85) and 1.6 (1.22 to 2.03) times the odds of LowSCC cows treated with AB+ITS and of HighSCC cows treated with AB+ITS, respectively. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent pathogen isolated from the population. Recategorizing the threshold for LowSCC cows as ≤150,000 cells/mL or ≤100,000 cells/mL in the previous lactation had no effect on the results. The results indicate that herds with good mastitis control programs may use ITS alone at dry-off in cows with SCC <200,000 cells/mL across lactation with only a small effect on herd SCC.
    • Shelf-life extension of herring (Clupea harengus) using in-package atmospheric plasma technology

      Albertos, Irene; Martin-Diana, A. B.; Cullen, Patrick J.; Tiwari, Brijesh; Ojha, K. Shikha; Bourke, Paula; Rico, D.; Regional Government of Castille and Leon, Spain; NUGAFU-PEP 2011/769 (Elsevier, 2017-09-17)
      Atmospheric cold plasma is a green and emerging technology, highly interesting to the food industry for its application. Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) can generate atmospheric cold plasma inside sealed packages filled with air through the use of high voltages. This study investigated the use of a large gap DBD design to generate a plasma discharge within the headspace of packaged herring fillets, and its effects on microbiological and quality markers of the fish stored for 11 days at 4 °C. DBD plasma treatment conditions were 70 kV or 80 kV for 5 min treatment time. Results showed that the microbial load (total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophics, Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the treated samples compared to the control samples. However, samples exposed to the lowest applied voltage better retained key quality factors (lower oxidation and less colour modification). DBD-treatment caused a reduction in trapped water in the myofibrillar network (T21), identified using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance of protons (1H LF NMR). The results indicate that in-package plasma treatment could be employed as an effective treatment for reducing spoilage bacteria in fish.
    • Effects of different freshness on the quality of cooked tuna steak

      Miao, Hanlin; Liu, Qin; Bao, Hairong; Wang, Xichang; Miao, Song; National High-tech Research & Development Program of China; #2012AA092302 (Elsevier, 2017-07-10)
      The variation in quality of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) steaks of different freshness after cooking were studied by analyzing K value, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-related compounds content, histamine content, sensory quality, E-nose and E-tongue analysis. The results indicated that when the freshness of raw tuna steak decreased from sashimi grade to cooking grade, IMP content significantly decreased whereas HxR content significantly increased after cooking. With the decrease of freshness, K value of the 4th day sashimi-grade tuna and the 6th day cooking-grade tuna increased from 18% and 24% to 27% and 45% respectively after cooking. The higher histamine content in raw tuna steak, the more significantly increased histamine level of cooked tuna was observed. Raw tuna steaks with sashimi grade have significant variation from those with cooking grade in odor and taste by E-nose and E-tongue analysis after cooking The sensory evaluation showed that the freshness of tuna steak significantly influence the cooking quality (p < 0.05).