Now showing items 41-60 of 2375

    • Self-Agglomeration in Fluidised Beds after Spray Drying

      Fitzpatrick, John J.; Wu, Shaozong; Cronin, Kevin; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201606350091 (MDPI AG, 2020-06-05)
      Many powders are produced in spray-drying processes from liquid concentrates. Self-agglomeration can be performed in a fluidised bed where the spray-dried powder is agglomerated using the liquid concentrate as the binder material. This has advantages over traditional wet agglomeration in fluid beds using liquid binders (such as water or sugar solutions). These include thermal energy savings and no additional non-aqueous binder components added. The work presented has two parts. The first part is experimental, which investigated the self-agglomeration of whey protein isolate (WPI) powder as a case-study. It showed that satisfactory agglomeration was achieved with a great improvement in the wettability of the powder. The second part of the work performed thermal energy analysis to estimate the energy saving potential of self-agglomeration, and how this is influenced by binder to powder ratio and binder solids concentration. For the WPI case-study, the analysis showed there is potential for a 19% saving in thermal energy requirement for self-agglomeration in comparison to traditional agglomeration using a water binder.
    • Factors affecting ewe longevity on sheep farms in three European countries

      McLaren, A.; McHugh, Noirin; Lambe, N. R.; Pabiou, T.; Wall, E.; Boman, I. A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Research Council of Norway; Norwegian Association of Sheep and Goat Breeders; UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
      The ability to identify ewes that can outperform their contemporaries, in terms of how long they remain productive in the flock, will help towards improving flock efficiency and profitability. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) identify the main reasons for mortality or culling within diverse sheep production systems in Ireland, Norway and UK; (2) investigate the influence of early life factors on ewe longevity within each of these systems; and (3) determine whether common approaches or recommendations could be employed to improve ewe longevity. The main reasons for mortality or culling were, in addition to old age, mastitis (Irish and Norwegian sheep) and tooth loss (UK hill sheep). In each country, there were significant differences in age at last lambing due to the year the ewe was born (but in no consistent pattern), and due to her flock of birth (P < 0.05). From the Norwegian data, there was some indication ewes from younger dams lambed for the last time at a younger age, however, this trend was not seen in the Irish or UK data. Ewes born as singletons, in the Irish data, lambed for the last time at an older age than those that had been born in larger litters, although this was not observed in the other data sets. Age at first lambing and some breed proportions (proportion of Texel and Suffolk particularly) of the animal (both not fitted in the Norwegian or UK analyses) were found to have a highly significant (P < 0.0001) effect on age at last lambing in the Irish analyses. The results suggest that longevity is influenced by a range of different factors and the early life predictors investigated could not be used to provide consistent recommendations across countries, production systems and breeds that would influence ewe longevity. One common definition or solution to select ewes for longer productive life in divergent sheep flocks may not be appropriate.
    • Evaluation of the n-alkane technique for estimating the individual intake of dairy cows consuming diets containing herbage and a partial mixed ration

      Wright, M.M.; Auldist, M.J.; Kennedy, Emer; Dunshea, F.R.; Galvin, N.; Hannah, M.C.; Wales, W.J.; DJPR; Victoria; Dairy Australia (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
      Estimation of dry matter intake (DMI) using the n-alkane technique was evaluated in lactating dairy cows fed fresh herbage and a partial mixed ration (PMR). Four dietary treatments were investigated in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment using 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Dietary treatments were combinations of low and high amounts of fresh herbage (8 or 14 kg DM/cow per day) and PMR supplement (6 or 12 kg DM/cow per day). The pre-experimental period was 14 days followed by a 10-day experimental period. Cows were housed in individual metabolism stalls to allow for accurate measurement of DMI and total fecal output. Fecal n-alkane recovery rates were calculated to determine the most accurate corrections for incomplete fecal n-alkane recovery. The n-alkane technique accurately estimated DMI when corrected for incomplete fecal recovery using both published recovery rates and recovery rates calculated in this experiment. The most accurate application of recovery rates was with those calculated for each combination of dietary treatments, compared with using an average recovery rate. This research has important implications for the future use of the n-alkane technique, especially in PMR feeding systems. The discrepancy between estimated (when treatment recovery rates were applied) and measured herbage DMI increased with the amount of herbage offered but was not affected by amount of PMR. It was also found that the recovery rates of all natural n-alkanes increased as the amount of herbage increased. This research demonstrates that the n-alkane technique can be used to accurately estimate individual cow intake when fresh herbage and PMR are offered separately, evidenced by strong Lin’s concordance estimates.
    • Exploring the sensitivity of visual soil evaluation to traffic-induced soil compaction

      Emmet-Booth, J.P.; Holden, N.M.; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, G.; Forristal, P.D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13/S/468 (Elsevier BV, 2020-03)
      Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques are useful for assessing the impact of land management, particularly the identification and remediation of soil compaction. Despite an increasing body of VSE research, comparatively few studies have explored the sensitivity of VSE for capturing experimentally imposed compaction to estimate sensitivity and limit of detection. The aim of this research was to examine the ability of VSE techniques to indicate soil structure at different soil profile depths and to measure the associated soil productive function (yield) response to imposed compaction. A two-year experiment was conducted on sites with loam and sandy soils. Varying levels of wheeled traffic were imposed on plots in a randomised block design, prior to sowing winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Quantitative crop and soil measurements were taken throughout the season in conjunction with VSE techniques, which assessed to 25 cm (VESS), 40 cm (Double Spade) and 80 cm (SubVESS) depth. Graduated changes were observed by soil and some crop quantitative measurements as traffic treatment varied. VESS and Double Spade successfully identified a graduated treatment effect at all sites to 40 cm depth, although diagnosis translated into a yield response for the loam but not the sandy soil. Correlation between VESS Sq scores and crop yield were found. SubVESS gave mixed signals and indicated impacts lower in the profile in certain instances. These impacts were not captured by quantitative soil measurements. This work highlights the capacity for VSE techniques to indicate soil structural damage, which may cause a crop yield response, therefore allowing appropriate soil management strategies to be deployed before yield penalties occur.
    • Application of next generation sequencing for the elucidation of genes and pathways involved in the host response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus

      Johnston, D; Earley, B; McCabe, M. S.; Blackshields, G.; Lemon, K.; Duffy, C.; McMenamy, M.; Cosby, S. L.; Kim, J.; Taylor, J. F.; et al. (2021-06-16)
      Objective: To identify genes and pathways involved in the host response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.
    • Genetic regulation of compost and plant degradation mechanisms in Agaricus bisporus

      Dunne, Keith; O' Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Grogan, Helen; Heneghan, Mary; IT Sligo; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (2021-06-16)
      Agaricus bisporus (common button mushroom) is an economically significant mushroom with an annual global value in excess of $4.7 billion (Eastwood et al, 2015). When commercially grown, A. bisporus mushrooms are mostly picked from the first and second flush. This is due to the third flush resulting in reduced yields (Royse and Sanchez, 2008), which are also often more prone to disease. This occurs despite significant nutrients and nitrogen being available in the compost for A. bisporus to utilise. To further understand why this is occurring, microarray analysis was carried out on compost samples throughout a full commercial growth cycle, with the aim of identifying genes that may be responsible for this reduction in yield.
    • Visible and NIR hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics for prediction of microbial quality of beef Longissimus dorsi muscle under simulated normal and abuse storage conditions

      Achata, Eva M.; Oliveira, Marcia; Esquerre, Carlos A.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food & the Marine; 13/FM/508 (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
      There is a need to develop a rapid technique to provide real time information on the microbial load of meat along the supply chain. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a rapid, non-destructive technique well suited to food analysis applications. In this study, HSI in both the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and chemometrics were studied for prediction of the bacterial growth on beef Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) under simulated normal (4 °C) and abuse (10 °C) storage conditions. Total viable count (TVC) prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression (PLS-R), spectral pre-treatments, band selection and data fusion methods. The best TVC prediction models developed for storage at 4 (RMSEp 0.58 log CFU/g, RPDp 4.13, R2p 0.96), 10 °C (RMSEp 0.97 log CFU/g, RPDp 3.28, R2p 0.94) or at either 4 or 10 °C (RMSEp 0.89 log CFU/g, RPDp 2.27, R2p 0.86) were developed using high-level data fusion of both spectral regions. The use of appropriate spectral pre-treatments and band selection methods was key for robust model development. This study demonstrated the potential of HSI and chemometrics for real time monitoring to predict microbial growth on LD along the meat supply chain.
    • Preparation, structure-property relationships and applications of different emulsion gels: Bulk emulsion gels, emulsion gel particles, and fluid emulsion gels

      Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201708350111 (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
      Background In recent years, there has been increasing interest in emulsion gels, due to their better stability during storage and potential for prolonged intestinal drug release compared to emulsions. There are three kinds of emulsion gels, classified according to their morphological properties: bulk emulsion gels, emulsion gel particles and liquid emulsion gels. Scope and approach This paper provides a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and procedures of different methods for preparing different emulsion gels and relationships between structures and properties of emulsion gels. The applications of emulsion gels in the food industry are finally discussed. Key findings and conclusions Different emulsion gels result from different preparation methods, and have various structure-property relationships and applications. Many methods can be used to prepare bulk emulsion gels, involving different matrix materials, processing techniques, and purposes. This can result in different structures of gel matrices and emulsion droplets, and interactions between them, which can influence the structures of bulk emulsion gels and then their mechanical and release properties. On the other hand, extrusion and impinging aerosol methods are two methods for preparing emulsion gel particles, while liquid emulsion gels can be prepared by Pickering emulsions and disrupted gel systems. Rheological, syneresis and swelling properties are critical for gel particle suspensions, while flow behavior and release properties are important to liquid emulsion gels. In addition, fat replacements and delivery systems are main applications of emulsion gels in the food industry. However, current research has mainly focused on bulk emulsion gels, so further studies on emulsion gel particles and liquid emulsion gels are required.
    • Characteristics of offspring derived from conventional and X-sorted bovine sperm

      Maicas, C.; Hutchinson, I.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Lonergan, P.; Butler, Stephen; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (American Dairy Science Association, 2020-08)
      The objective of this retrospective study was to compare survival during the first year of life and adult performance of offspring derived from artificial insemination (AI) with X-sorted or conventional sperm processed from the same ejaculates. We analyzed a data set that included AI of dairy heifers and lactating cows with fresh conventional sperm (3 × 106 sperm per straw), fresh X-sorted sperm (1 or 2 × 106 sperm per straw), or frozen X-sorted sperm (2 × 106 sperm per straw). The data set contained records of 5,179 offspring born on 396 farms. Offspring were classified as born from conventional sperm (CONV) if they were the product of an insemination with fresh conventional sperm, or born from X-sorted sperm (SS) if they were product of any of the 3 X-sorted sperm treatments. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of sperm treatment on (1) survival during the first year of life; (2) reproductive performance, lactation performance, and survival of female offspring; and (3) slaughter characteristics of male offspring. Stillbirth rates and mortality rates during the first 2 mo of life were greater for male calves (2.8 and 5.0%, respectively) than for female calves (1.6 and 2.0%, respectively). No differences between offspring derived from SS and CONV were detected for incidences of stillbirth or mortality during the first 12 mo of life within sex of calf. Reproductive performance, milk volume, milk fat, milk protein yields during first; second; and third lactations, and survival to third lactation did not differ between female offspring derived from CONV and SS. Across all age groups, CONV steers had heavier carcasses than SS steers (325.3 vs. 318.3 kg), but there were no differences in weight between CONV and SS steers within any of the age groups (≤24, 25–27, 28–30, and >30 mo of age). The distribution of slaughter age did not differ between CONV and SS steers when the analysis was restricted to herds that reared steers derived from both types of sperm. Carcass conformation and fat scores of steers were not affected by sperm treatment. There was no difference in carcass weight between young bulls (≤2 yr) derived from CONV or SS. In conclusion, the results provide no evidence of differences in survival during the first year of life between offspring derived from CONV or SS, or for any of the reproductive and lactation performance characteristics studied between female offspring derived from CONV or SS. Modest differences in carcass weight between CONV and SS steers were detected, but this may reflect differences in management and husbandry in the rearing herds rather than the sex-sorting process. A controlled study using steers derived from conventional or X-sorted sperm from split ejaculates and reared under the same husbandry conditions is needed to clarify whether there is a true difference in body weight gain due to the sex-sorting process.
    • Effect of concentrations of alginate, soy protein isolate and sunflower oil on water loss, shrinkage, elastic and structural properties of alginate-based emulsion gel beads during gelation

      Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Maidannyk, Valentyn; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201708350111 (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of concentrations of sodium alginate (0.5%–1.5% in the water phase of an emulsion), soy protein isolate (SPI, 0.5%–2.0% in the water phase) and oil phase (10%–40% in the emulsion) on the properties (including water loss, shrinkage, morphological, elastic, and structural properties) of emulsion gel beads during gelation (0–30 min). Gel beads were prepared with external gelation by dropping emulsions into CaCl2 solutions using pipettes. The Young's modulus of emulsion gel beads kept increasing during gelation before reaching a plateau accompanied by syneresis (i.e., water loss), shrinkage, and structural tightening. SPI absorbed at the surface of oil droplets could prevent re-coalescence of droplets during gelation. Additionally, increasing concentrations of sodium alginate and oil increased the Young's modulus of gel beads. Water loss decreased with increasing contents of alginate, SPI and oil, and shrinkage could be diminished by increasing alginate and oil contents.
    • Use of an NIR MEMS spectrophotometer and visible/NIR hyperspectral imaging systems to predict quality parameters of treated ground peppercorns

      Esquerre, Carlos A.; Achata, Eva M.; García-Vaquero, Marco; Zhang, Zhihang; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a micro-electromechanical NIR spectrophotometer (NIR-MEMS) and visible (Vis)/NIR hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems to predict the moisture content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) of treated ground peppercorns. Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed using spectra from peppercorns treated with hot-air, microwave and cold plasma. The spectra were acquired using three spectroscopy systems: NIR-MEMS (1350–1650 nm), Vis-NIR HSI (450–950 nm) and NIR HSI (957–1664 nm). Very good predictions of TPC (RPD > 3.6) were achieved using NIR-MEMS. The performance of models developed using Vis-NIR HSI and NIR HSI were good or very good for DPPH (RPD > 3.0), FRAP (RPD >2.9) and TPC (RPD > 3.8). This study demonstrated the potential of NIR-MEMS and Vis-NIR/NIR HSI to predict the moisture content, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of peppercorns. The spectroscopy technologies investigated are suitable for use as in-line PAT tools to facilitate improved process control and understanding during peppercorn processing.
    • Stability of powdered infant formula during secondary shelf-life and domestic practices

      Condurso, Concetta; Cincotta, Fabrizio; Merlino, Maria; STANTON, CATHERINE; Verzera, Antonella; Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR); AIM 1823923-3; CUP J44I18000190006 (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      Powdered infant formula (PIF) and lactose-free PIF during secondary shelf-life (SSL) and under domestic practices was investigated to verify their stability up to the expiration date and under the label instructions for milk reconstitution. Particular attention was given to variations in Maillard reaction and lipid peroxidation products identified and quantified by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Two types of PIF: Type A based on bovine milk and Type B a lactose-free product based on glucose syrup were analysed. The PIF were analysed at regular time intervals beyond the labelled expiration date after opening, and reconstituted using water at 70 °C, 80 °C and 90 °C. A large number of volatile compounds were identified and significant statistically differences resulted during SSL and water temperature used for reconstitution that were correlated to the PIF composition. The study showed that water temperature for reconstitution of samples and the SSL has to be adapted to PIF composition.
    • Variability in greenhouse gas emission intensity of semi-intensive suckler cow beef production systems

      Samsonstuen, Stine; Åby, Bente A.; Crosson, Paul; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Wetlesen, Marit S.; Bonesmo, Helge; Aass, Laila; Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences; The Agriculture and Food Industry Research Funds; Geno Breeding and AI Association; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      Emission intensities from beef production vary both among production systems (countries) and farms within a country depending upon use of natural resources and management practices. A whole-farm model developed for Norwegian suckler cow herds, HolosNorBeef, was used to estimate GHG emissions from 27 commercial beef farms in Norway with Angus, Hereford, and Charolais cattle. HolosNorBeef considers direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from on-farm livestock production and indirect N2O and CO2 emissions associated with inputs used on the farm. The corresponding soil carbon (C) emissions are estimated using the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM). The farms were distributed across Norway with varying climate and natural resource bases. The estimated emission intensities ranged from 22.5 to 45.2 kg CO2 equivalents (eq) (kg carcass)−1. Enteric CH4 was the largest source, accounting for 44% of the total GHG emissions on average, dependent on dry matter intake (DMI). Soil C was the largest source of variation between individual farms and accounted for 6% of the emissions on average. Variation in GHG intensity among farms was reduced and farms within region East, Mid and North re-ranked in terms of emission intensities when soil C was excluded. Ignoring soil C, estimated emission intensities ranged from 21.5 to 34.1 kg CO2 eq (kg carcass)−1. High C loss from farms with high initial soil organic carbon (SOC) content warrants further examination of the C balance of permanent grasslands as a potential mitigation option for beef production systems.
    • A novel approach for dynamic in-situ surface characterisation of milk protein concentrate hydration and reconstitution using an environmental scanning electron microscope

      Cenini, V.L.; Gallagher, L.; McKerr, G.; McCarthy, Noel; McSweeney, D. J.; Auty, M. A. E.; O'Hagan, M. A. E.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs in Northern Ireland; DAIRY DRY 15-F-679 (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
      Composition and relative humidity (RH) can have a profound impact on the physical (flowability, stickiness) and functional (reconstitution) properties of milk powder (MP) and therefore its quality, storage stability and shelf-life. Conventional microscopic techniques are not capable of dynamically imaging the effect of RH on MP at high magnification. The aim of this study was to develop a novel method to characterise in-situ and in real time the hydration and reconstitution of five spray-dried milk protein concentrates (MPCs) using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). ESEM was employed to observe the surface microstructure of MPC powders with varying protein content (38.63%–80.94%, w/w), at various RH values ranging from 35% to over 100%. MPC powders were imaged by an ESEM without any prior preparation, and with minimal physical sample alteration, thus providing fundamental insights into MPC hydration and reconstitution. ESEM surface analysis showed particle swelling in all MPCs, and that with increasing protein content, hydration and reconstitution efficiency decreased. For the first time, dynamic particle surface fusion was observed. Such fusion can result in stickiness and caking over time. ESEM methods developed here may provide mechanistic insights into the effects of RH during storage. Surface re-arrangement was also observed in all MPCs, but was impeded in MPC70 and MPC80 thus indicating that this is the rate limiting step for MPC reconstitution. This work validates the use of an ESEM to dynamically characterise MPC powder hydration and reconstitution in-situ and in real-time, at both high magnification and spatial resolution.
    • The arrival of a red invasive seaweed to a nutrient over-enriched estuary increases the spatial extent of macroalgal blooms

      Bermejo, Ricardo; MacMonagail, Michéal; Heesch, Svenja; Mendes, Ana; Edwards, Maeve; Fenton, Owen; Knöller, Kay; Daly, Eve; Morrison, Liam; Environmental Protection Agency; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
      The red seaweed Agarophyton vermiculophyllum is an invasive species native to the north-west Pacific, which has proliferated in temperate estuaries of Europe, North America and Africa. Combining molecular identification tools, historical satellite imagery and one-year seasonal monitoring of biomass and environmental conditions, the presence of A. vermiculophyllum was confirmed, and the invasion was assessed and reconstructed. The analysis of satellite imagery identified the first bloom in 2014 and revealed that A. vermiculophyllum is capable of thriving in areas, where native bloom-forming species cannot, increasing the size of blooms (ca. 10%). The high biomass found during the peak bloom (>2 kg m−2) and the observation of anoxic events indicated deleterious effects. The monitoring of environmental conditions and biomass variability suggests an essential role of light, temperature and phosphorous in bloom development. The introduction of this species could be considered a threat for local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in a global change context.
    • Quality indices and sensory attributes of beef from steers offered grass silage and a concentrate supplemented with dried citrus pulp

      Salami, Saheed A.; O'Grady, Michael N.; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; McGee, Mark; Moloney, Aidan P.; Kerry, Joseph P.; European Union; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/S/122, FEFAN (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      This study investigated the quality composition, oxidative stability and sensory attributes of beef (longissimus thoracis, LT) from steers offered grass silage and a concentrate supplement in which barley was replaced by 40% and 80% (as-fed basis) of dried citrus pulp (DCP). Dietary treatment did not influence the antioxidant status (α-tocopherol and total phenolic contents) and activities of LT (radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and iron chelating activity). Feeding DCP significantly increased the proportion of conjugated linoleic acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in beef. Lipid and colour stability of fresh beef patties stored in modified atmosphere packs (MAP) were unaffected by dietary treatment but feeding 40% DCP reduced (P < .05) lipid oxidation in aerobically-stored cooked beef patties. Beef patties stored in MAP for up to 7 days were assessed by sensory panellists to be juicier for those fed 40% DCP compared to 0% and 80% DCP. Results indicated that substitution of barley with DCP improved the fatty acid profiles of beef without negatively influencing the eating quality of beef.
    • Comparative genomics and gene-trait matching analysis of Bifidobacterium breve from Chinese children

      Liu, Rui; Yang, Bo; STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, Paul; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National First-Class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
      Bifidobacterium breve is one of the dominant Bifidobacterial species in children. In the current work, 46 strains of B. breve isolated from fecal samples of Chinese children were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics to explore their genetic diversity, as well as genotype and phenotype analysis for carbohydrate utilization and antibiotic tolerance. The phylogenetic tree was independent of region, age and feeding mode, and without any regularity in the clustering of carbohydrates and antibiotics at the genetic level. Based on genotypic-phenotypic correlation analysis, the diversity of glycosyl hydrolases and the ability of strains to metabolize carbohydrates corroborated the predominance of B. breve in the children's intestines. Simultaneously, the sensitivity of strains to antibiotics increased the understanding of its genetic features and provided a potential basis for safety evaluation.
    • Moderate electric fields and ohmic heating as promising fermentation tools

      Gavahian, Mohsen; Tiwari, Brijesh K (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
      Fermentation is an important bioprocess in food production and its improvements can bring profits to the food industry. Therefore, researchers are exploring the feasibility of applying emerging processing technologies such as moderate electric field (MEF) and ohmic heating to improve this bioprocess. This study demonstrated the current status, potential benefits, mechanisms, and limitations of innovative MEF- and ohmic-assisted fermentation. Research showed that these techniques can positively affect Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Saccharomyces fermentations that are involved in the production of bakery (e.g., leavened breads), dairy (e.g., yogurt), and alcoholic products. Also, volumetric ohmic heating can accelerate fermentation by providing optimum fermentation temperatures quickly. MEF-induced stress-response conditions can affect microbial metabolism and fermentation products. Besides, electrical fields may affect the fermentation process by altering the substrate such as releasing its micronutrients. These approaches can be considered prospective industrial fermentation tools. Further economic studies and in-depth research on their effects on fermentation by-products are expected in the near future.
    • Dr. Ahmed Ouali, 1948–2020

      GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Coulis, Gérald; Aubry, Laurent; Astruc, Thierry; Herrera-Mendez, Carlos; Valin, Christian; Benyamin, Yves; Fernandez, Eric; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
    • Sward composition and soil moisture conditions affect nitrous oxide emissions and soil nitrogen dynamics following urea-nitrogen application

      Bracken, Conor J.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Richards, Karl G.; Müller, Christoph; Tracy, Saoirse R.; Grant, James; Krol, Dominika; Sheridan, Helen; Lynch, Mary Bridget; Grace, Cornelia; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
      Increased emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), from agricultural soils is a major concern for the sustainability of grassland agriculture. Emissions of N2O are closely associated with the rates and forms of N fertilisers applied as well as prevailing weather and soil conditions. Evidence suggests that multispecies swards require less fertiliser N input, and may cycle N differently, thus reducing N loss to the environment. This study used a restricted simplex-centroid experimental design to investigate N2O emissions and soil N cycling following application of urea-N (40 kg N ha−1) to eight experimental swards (7.8 m2) with differing proportions of three plant functional groups (grass, legume, herb) represented by perennial ryegrass (PRG, Lolium perenne), white clover (WC, Trifolium repens) and ribwort plantain (PLAN, Plantago lanceolata), respectively. Swards were maintained under two contrasting soil moisture conditions to examine the balance between nitrification and denitrification. Two N2O peaks coincided with fertiliser application and heavy rainfall events; 13.4 and 17.7 g N2O-N ha−1 day−1 (ambient soil moisture) and 39.8 and 86.9 g N2O-N ha−1 day−1 (wet soil moisture). Overall, cumulative N2O emissions post-fertiliser application were higher under wet soil conditions. Increasing legume (WC) proportions from 0% to 60% in multispecies swards resulted in model predicted N2O emissions increasing from 22.3 to 96.2 g N2O-N ha−1 (ambient soil conditions) and from 59.0 to 219.3 g N2O-N ha−1 (wet soil conditions), after a uniform N application rate. Soil N dynamics support denitrification as the dominant source of N2O especially under wet soil conditions. Significant interactions of PRG or WC with PLAN on soil mineral N concentrations indicated that multispecies swards containing PLAN potentially inhibit nitrification and could be a useful mitigation strategy for N loss to the environment from grassland agriculture.